Accepted Abstracts

All Accepted Abstracts

Abstract R/0099 - QUANTIFICATION OF TRIAZINE COMPOUNDS IN FISH AND POULTRY FEEDS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY – DIODE ARRAY DETECTION

1OYEDEJI O. Abdulrasaq, and 1ODEYEMI A. Bibilomo.

1The Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro
Introduction: The analysis of feeds for cyromazine and its metabolite, melamine, a dealkylation product from animal and plant metabolism of cyromazine as a safety measure becomes necessary because of their health effects that include urolithiasis resulting from renal failure and bladder cancer.  
Aim: This study investigates the presence of cyromazine and its metabolite melamine in fish and poultry feed samples available in Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD).
Materials and Methods: Fish and poultry feed samples meant for various sizes of fishes and different types of chickens, respectively produced locally and imported were pulverised, treated with acetonitrile and adjusted to pH 7 with a phosphate buffer before extraction with alkaline acetonitrile (acetonitrile: 25% ammonia solution (95/5; v/v)) from solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges previously conditioned with methanol and phosphate buffer. The extracts were concentrated to 2 mL in a water bath at 20oC, filtered through a 0.45 µm syringe and separated on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (150 x 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with mobile phases consisting of acidified ultrapure water and acetonitrile in gradient elution mode within a run time of four minutes.
Results: The concentration of melamine in fish feed samples ranged between 93.13±49.76 and 561.5±395.12 µg/kg and 100.26±88.63 and 359.9±277.96 µg/kg for cyromazine while poultry feeds had between 31.5±22.89 and 57.00±29.09  µg/kg,  and 149.20±153.57  and 274.4±249.14 for melamine and cyromazine, respectively. 
Conclusion: The concentrations of melamine and cyromazine` found in this study were present at a lower concentration in the feeds than the permissible levels, and are considered a baseline, meaning they did not result from adulteration or misuse; but from concentrations of melamine present in the environment and in the food chain. The combined effects of the two analytes could be a potential health risk if the pre-sale withdrawal period of three days is not observed.
Abstract R/0100 - Derivatisation Improved the Physicochemical Properties of Treculia africana (Decne) Kernel Starch

1ODERINDE A. Abdulazeez, 1IBIKUNLE A. Adeola, 1BAKRE G. Lateef, and 1BABARINDE A. Najeem.

1Chemical Sciences Department, Olabisi Onabanjo University, P. M. B. 2002, Ago-Iwoye, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria.
Introduction: Starch finds use in a myriad of industrial applications with its conventional sources being staple foods. These sources are over-depended upon and are likely to cause food insecurity in the nearest future. In its native form, starch functionalities are limited and thus the need for starch derivatisation.
Aim: This study was carried out to isolate starch from Treculia africana, a lesser-known starch source, modify it and investigate the effects of derivatisation on the physicochemical and morphological properties of T. africana native starch.
Materials and Methods: Starch isolation was done using reported method with modification. The isolated starch was acetylated, oxidised and acid-thinned using acetic anhydride, sodium hypochlorite and dilute hydrochloric acid, respectively. Chemical properties, swelling power and solubility, water and oil absorption capacities, gelation properties and morphological characteristics of the native and derivatised starches were determined using established procedures
Results: Significant (p < 0.05) reductions in the native starch moisture, ash, crude protein, crude fat, and crude fibre compositions were observed. Starches increased in swelling power and solubilities with increase in temperature. The oxidised starch showed the most significant increase (p < 0.05) in oil absorption capacity while the native starch had better water absorption capacity than the modified starches. Improved gelation property was most significant in the acid-thinned starch. Scanning electron microscopy, showed oblong and oval starch granules with rough surface morphology with no significant differences for the native and derivatised starches.
Conclusion: The study showed that modification improved T. africana kernel starch properties making the starch derivatives potential raw materials for the starch-based industries.
Abstract R/0101 - Comparative analysis of proximate and pesticide residue of local and imported Rice (oryza sativa)

1OSIFEKO L. Olawale, 1ONWORDI T. chionyedua, 1ADESANYA R. Ayobami, 1OGUNOYE B. Tosin, 1ADEKO O. Sarah, and 1PETERS G. Ifeoluwa.

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Nigeria
Introduction: Rice, a commonly consumed staple food with importance as regard human nutrition and calorie intake in Nigeria. Rice cultivation has been subjected to the application of pesticides like every other agricultural product for the prevention of food pests. Hence, the need for a comparative study on the proximate analysis and pesticide residues of local and imported rice.
Aim: This study determines levels of pesticide residues and the proximate nutritional composition in the local and imported rice available in the Nigerian market.
Materials and Methods: The rice samples (four local and four imported) were subjected to the standard technique for the proximate analysis while the. pesticide residues were extracted from the samples using Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction method and quantified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS).
Results: The proximate composition of the rice show that the local rice has higher protein, fat, crude fibre, moisture content and ash content at (8.01 to 9.32)%, (6.48 to 11.96)%, (4.98 to 7.35)%, (10.53-13.82)% and (0.69 to 0.77)% than the foreign rice at (7.79 to 8.88)%, (3.48 to 12.9)% (5.34 to 6.69)%, (11.01 to 12.56)% and (0.54 to 0.59)% respectively while the carbohydrate content of the foreign rice is higher than the local rice at a range of (61.80 to 68.63)% and (61.36-65.18)% respectively. The GC/MS screening of 17 pesticides detect the availability of 4 residues namely Endosulfan ether, Aldrin, Dieldrin, and Endrin ketone pesticide residues in trace amount in both local and imported rice. Heptachlor epoxide, α-Endosulfan, Endosulfan, and Endosulfan sulfate are detected only in imported rice samples
Conclusion: It could be deduced from the study that the local rice has more nutritional value than the foreign rice, and there is a safety concern regarding the detection of some pesticide residue above the maximum residue level (8 mg/kg). which might lead to potential health hazards.
Abstract R/0142 - Health Risk Assessment and Heavy Metal Concentration in Neem (Azadirachta indica) leave, stem and root growing within Lagos State University School of Agriculture Epe, Nigeria

1OLUWOLE O. Surukite, 1AVOSEH . Opeyemi, 1MAJOLAGBE . Abdurafiu, 2ATUGWU . Joe, and 3YUSUF . Kafeelah.

1Lagos State University
2Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta
3Lagos State University Ojo
Introduction: Azadirachta indica(neem) belonging to Meliaceae family is a widely used medicinal plant in Nigeria and other regions worldwide which is traditionally used to treat different diseases. Heavy metals in plants should be determined because prolonged human intake of toxic trace elements, even at low doses, results in organ malfunction and causes chronic toxicity.
Aim: This present study aims at evaluating the trace metal concentration in neem tree (leaves, stem and root) and the health risk assessment associated with their use.
Materials and Methods: The different parts of Neem tree (leaves, stem and root) were collected in 2019 from Lagos State University School of Agriculture Epe and acid digested for quantitative analysis of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Fe, Mn and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).
Results: The result showed that Pb was not detected but accumulate in varying amounts of metals in the order Fe>Ni>Mn>Cr>Cd. The contents of heavy metals in the stem were relatively lower than leave and root with the exception of Ni and Zn. The cancer risk estimation values for the carcinogenic metals were all within acceptable limits. The non-cancer health risk evaluation revealed that, some of the different parts of Neem pose health risk to consumers.
Conclusion: The above results showed that except for Mn and Pb that was not detected, all other concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe and Zn) were found above the FAO/ WHO set permissible limits for medicinal plants and were probably unsafe for human consumption. However, some metals especially Cd and Pb are toxic heavy metals and their presence at low concentration causes toxic effects to human health. Also Fe and Zn, their excessive concentrations can cause toxicity in consumers. Hence, people should be aware of the daily consumption of heavy metals accumulated in analysed medicinal plant.
Abstract R/0029 - EFFECTS OF FERTILITY AGENTS AS PROLACTIN MODULATING FACTORS IN ALBINO RATS FED Nymphaea lotus EXTRACT.

1OLADIMEJI S. OLUGBENGA, 1BAKARE A. KUNLE, 2OLADIMEJI S. OLUGBENGA, and 2BAKARE A. KUNLE.

1LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY OJO
2LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY , OJO LAGOS
Introduction: Background and Objective: Nymphaea lotus (N. lotus) is a medicinal plant traditionally used for treating hyperprolactinemia.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aqueous extract of Nymphaea lotus on reproductive hormone levels in relation to Norepinephrine and serotonin levels in metoclopramide-induced hyperprolactinemic rats.
Materials and Methods: Methodology: Hyperprolactinemia was induced by oral administration of 4.9mg/kg b.w.t. metoclopramide to female rats, for 3 days. This was later followed by administration of low and high doses of N. lotus to the rats daily for 14 days, while distilled water and bromocriptine were given to the hyperprolactinemia control and infertile control respectively.
Results: Results: Significant increase was observed in the serum progesterone and estradiol levels. The N. lotus aqueous extract also significantly improved the haematological and biochemical parameters.
Conclusion: Conclusion: Aqueous extract of N. lotus can ameliorate mild hyperprolactinemia, but standard drug needed for more severe cases. KEYWORDS: Prolactin, Hyperprolactinemia, Nymphaea lotus, fertility, Modulating.
Abstract R/0030 - LIPID INDICES AND OTHER BLOOD INDICES RESULTING FROM ETHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF GARCINIA KOLA ON FEMALE WISTAR ALBINO RAT

1OLADIMEJI S. OLUGBENGA, 1YUSUF A. ABAYOMI, 1SEYI. A. OLU, and 1LAWAL O. ADEJUMO.

1LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY , OJO LAGOS
Introduction: Abstract Garcinia kola (bitter kola) is referred to as a “wonder plant” because every part of it has been found to be of medicinal importance. Some bioactive constituents such as saponins, tannins, flavonoids, sterols, triterpenoids, alkaloid, and phenol that are significantly present in the plant extracts, support its multiple properties and uses in traditional medicine.
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the Lipid indices as well as other blood indices in the rats treated with ethanoic extracts of Garcinia Kola (Kolaviron).
Materials and Methods: Methodology : Rats totaling 56 of average weight of 140gm were placed 6 in each group of 7, each group was administered as follows; Group 1 , control (distilled water), Group 2 , postinor - infertile, Group 3 water + kolaviron extracts, Group 4, low-dose kolaviron treatment, Group , high-dose kolaviron treatment, Group 6 was the pregnancy group, Group 7 was the pregnancy group administered kolaviron. This administration was carried out for 14 days, thereafter blood samples were collected from rats. Ethanoic extract of Garcinia kola (Kolaviron) was investigated for its ability to exert an influence on serum lipid profile.
Results: Results showed that feeding rats with kolaviron produced a significant increase (p<0.05) in serum total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations.
Conclusion: In conclusion, Kolaviron appreciably affected the levels of serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, low density lipoprotein, high density lipoprotein, and glucose. Key words: Garcinia kola, kolaviron, Serum lipids, Female Albino rats, Glucose
Abstract R/0027 - Induced Mutagenic Effect of Gamma ray on Seedling Growth of Phaseolus vulgaris L.

1KYUKA K. Christal, 1TSWANYA N. Matthew, 1IBI A. Anna, 1BASHIRU A. Titilope, and 2ADESOYE I. Adenubi.

1Sheda Science and Technology Complex
2University of Ibadan
Introduction: Phaseolus vulgaris is a highly nutritious but an underutilized legume. In Nigeria, it is underutilized due to limited germplasm, low yield, and prolonged cooking time.
Aim: This study was carried out to induce variability in Phaseolus vulgaris for improved seedling traits to examine its effects.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Botany nursery, University of Ibadan, Nigeria in the 2015 cropping season. Two landraces of Phaseolus vulgaris (Sardauna and Bokkos) were treated with gamma ray (0Gy, 25Gy, 50Gy, 100Gy, 150Gy, 200Gy and 250Gy). Data were collected on seed germination, seedling growth and seedling survival and then subjected to analysis of variance using SAS ver. 9.3. Differences in treatment means was separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at p ≤ 0.05.
Results: Results showed that germination was enhanced at 250Gy (Bokkos), 100Gy (Sardauna) compared to the control (p≥ 0.05). Increased in seedling survival was observed in 25Gy (both landraces). Seedling plant height, number of branches and leaves and leaf area were improved at 25Gy, 150Gy, 250Gy in both landraces.
Conclusion: Apparently in this study, gamma ray induced caused an effect which was observed to show improved seedling parameters in Phaseolus vulgaris landraces compared to control. This indicates that gamma ray can be used to induce variability in germplasms which is going to aid breeding.
Abstract R/0025 - Comparative Study on the Effect of Diverse Substrates on the Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (Oyster Mushroom)

1EWEKEYE S. Tolulope, 1OGUNGBADE O. Aishat, 1SANNI A. Adetayo, and 1OKE A. Oyedamola.

1Lagos State University, Ojo
Introduction: Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster mushroom) is an edible mushroom with an exceptional aroma and savour. Sawdust, hulls, straw, stalk and paper will all promote growth in mushroom. Different mushrooms may need varying substrates for their growth and the materials used depend on what is readily available. P. ostreatus is suited to be cultivated in temperate as well as tropical climate.
Aim: This research was aimed at comparing the effects of different substrates on the cultivation of P. ostreatus
Materials and Methods: The substrates used in this study were cornhusk, sawdust with wood shavings, banana leaves and a combination of all the substrates. All substrates bags were inoculated with 52.5 mL teaspoon of spawn, autoclaved at 1210C and 1.1 kg/cm2 pressure and incubated under appropriate conditions both at the cropping room and fruiting chambers. The linear mycelia growth and biological efficiency were determined
Results: The time for spawn running varied between 20-60 days and time for harvesting took between 60-85 days. The maximum linear mycelia growth after spawn running, were observed on cornhusk and the longest mycelia growth time was observed on sawdust which took 60 days after spawn running. Maximum yield of P. ostreatus was obtained in cornhusk treatments with an average weight value of 92.1 g. The minimum yield observed on sawdust was 22 g and combination of all was 23 g while the banana leaves treatment gave no yield at all. The biological efficiency obtained on cornhusk was 12.43% and the lowest 2.2% was obtained on sawdust
Conclusion: Among all the substrates, cornhusk was established as the most effective substrate for the production of P. ostreatus as it best supported both the spawn running phase and the yield phase
Abstract R/0023 - BIOCHEMICAL EFFECT OF Symphonia globulifera ON SOME NEUROTRANSMITTERS IN RATS AS A PROBABLE CURE FOR ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

1BANKOLE A. Habeeb, 1OLAITAN N. Samuel, and 1ADARA-ALLI O. Ahmed.

1Department of Biochelistry, Lagos State University
Introduction: Sexual functions includes a complex set of behaviors and physiological processes, under the control of the central nervous system (CNS). The brain a major part of CNS sends both inhibitory and activating signals, which includes the catecholamines for sexual activities. Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, and Dopamine play some modulating role in human sexual function. The alcoholic decoction of the root back of symphonia globulifera is claimed to enhance sex drive and use to correct erectile dysfunction in Nigeria.
Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of ethanol extract of the plant on these catecholamines.
Materials and Methods: Albino rats of Wister –strain were grouped into control (n = 6), test (n = 24) and administered the root-bark extract at 2000mg/kg body weight. The rats were sacrificed and the level of epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine were estimated in the brains using spectrophotometric methods at 0, 2,4,8 and 24hrs.
Results: There was a significant decrease in the level of epinephrine and norepinephrine but a significant increase in dopamine when the test samples were compared with the control (p ≤ 0.05).
Conclusion: The ethanol extract enhances dopamine secretion and could be the probable mechanism by which the plant improves sexual function.
Abstract R/0032 - PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, GC-MS ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF Hyptis suaveolens (L) POIT. FROM KEFFI, NASARAWA STATE, NIGERIA

1OKOISE O. Fidelis, 1USMAN I. Jibril, 1YUSUF . Hussein, 1ADEGBA . Justina, 2OLAWEPO G. Kehinde, and 3EGHOBOR . Sunday.

1Federal Polytechnic Nasarawa, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, PMB 001, Nasarawa State.
2University of Ilorin, Department of Plant Biology, Ilorin, Kwara State.
3Federal University Dutse, Department of Biological Sciences, Jigawa State.
Introduction: The plant Hyptis suaveolens (L.) Poit. is a common medicinal plant found in several localities in Keffi, Nasarawa State. Its a well known plant in traditional medicine. The antioxidant, antiinflamatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of the plant essential oils are well documented. Several phytochemical studies of the plant from different environments showed variations in the phytochemicals present.
Aim: Hence, this study investigates the type of compounds found in the plant collected from Keffi and its antimicrobial properties on two common pathogens.
Materials and Methods: The dried leaf powder was extracted using methanol. Phytochemical screening was conducted on the leaf extract to test for phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavonoids, tanins, saponins, glycosiseds and anthraquinones. GC-MS analysis was also conducted on the leaf extracts to ascertain the presence of bioactive compounds. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out on two common pathogens (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) by disc diffusion technique using 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml concentration of the plant extract. Amoxil was used as the standard.
Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloids while cardiac glycosides and anthaquinones were absent. GC-MS analysis of the leaf extract revealed the presence of 16 compounds some of which include oleic acid (26.38%), palmitic acid (13.34%), pentadecanoic acid (5.26%), α-terpineol (2.27%) and isothujol (0.54%). The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that both concentrations of the plant leaf extract inhibited the growth of both organisms. Inhibition range was 9mm – 15mm in 25mg/ml and 12-20mm in 50mg/ml of the leaf extract.
Conclusion: Findings indicated that, the methanol leaf extract of H. suaveolens collected from Keffi contain bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activities and hence, could be a good source of raw materials for drug production by both herbal medicine producers and the pharmaceutical industries.
Abstract R/0033 - Bio-mineralization of toxic wastes in Africa using nature's choicest cleansing agents

1ETAWARE M. Peter, and 2AIRENGHIONMWAN O. Patience.

1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria
Introduction: Africa is gradually being submerged by wastes as huge amounts are generated daily. These wastes are fast occupying productive landsite profitable for agriculture and even destroying the aquatic ecosystem at rapid rate. If left unchecked, Africa will someday become extinct. An eco-friendly transition of wastes by nature’s choicest agents will help re-purpose Africa towards sustainable agriculture and subsequent wealth generation.
Aim: Re-purposing Africa towards sustainability
Materials and Methods: Two (2) plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Wolffia globosa) alongside three (3) Phytoplanktons (Euglena elastica, Phacus tortus and Trachelon anas) were used as bio-indicators. Thirteen (13) bacteria (Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. mendocina, P. putida, P. veronii, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, P. cepacia, Bacillus cereus, B. coagulans, Citrobacter koseri, Serratia ficaria and B. subtillis) and two (2) Mushrooms (Pleurotus pulmonarius and P. ostreatus) were used to degrade organic and inorganic wastes in Nigeria and some parts of Africa.
Results: Eichhornia crassipes, Wolffia globosa, Euglena elastica, Phacus tortus, and Trachelon anas, showed promising sensitivity to pollution in the marine ecosystems (Parmar et al., 2016), Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. mendocina and P. putida P. veronii, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter effectively degraded spilled petrol, diesel and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like toluene, P. cepacia, Bacillus cereus, B. coagulans, Citrobacter koseri and Serratia ficaria were used to clean up spilled diesel and crude oil, B. subtilis was used to clean up oil-based paints (Abatenh et al., 2017). Pleurotus pulmonarius (Edible mushroom) was able to degrade radioactive, crude oil and E-wastes, and P. ostreatus degraded plastics (Kulshreshtha et al., 2014).
Conclusion: The clean-up of water bodies, wastelands and dumpsites can help avail more useful space for agriculture and industrial growth in Africa. The microbes can be formulated into pellets, mushrooms packaged as food supplements, while plants as bio-indicators and exported to other continents in exchange for money. In anyway, wealth would be generated at mega-proportions.
Abstract R/0036 - EVALUATION OF BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH READY TO EAT RICE IN THE NIGER DELTA SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA AND THEIR SUSCEPTIBILITY

1CHRISTOPHER A. Mary, 2NYOYOKO F. Veronica, 1ETANGUNO E. Owowo, and 1UYOH E. Anietimfon.

1Akwa Ibom State University
2University of Nigeria Nsukka
Introduction: Rice (Oryza spp.) is the second leading cereal and staple food of half of the world’ population. It is grown in at least 114 countries with global production of 645 million tons. It is one of the most important crops in Nigeria and its production represents a significant part. Nigeria is the highest importer of rice in Africa and the second highest in the world. Rice is now a daily item on Nigerian menu unlike in the past. Rice accounts for about 60% to 70% of total intake and about 90% to 95% Nigerians consume rice.
Aim: This study was carried out to investigate bacteria associated with ready to eat (RTE) rice.
Materials and Methods: The study was done using standard microbiological methods. The period of study was six months. Bacteriological analysis which include microbial count, Gram staining , characterization and antibacterial susceptibility test.
Results: Total Aerobic plate count in Madonna and Ezeke cafeteria were 9.12 ±0.42 and 9.04 ±0.39, respectively. The most predominant bacteria pathogens isolated in this study include Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Antibacterial susceptibility pattern of Gram positive bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus showed 100% resistance to amoxicillin, roceptin, erythromycin, septrin, zinnacef. Highest sensitivity was observed in gentamycin. Bacillus species was significantly (p ˂ 0.05) sensitive to septrin (69.2%) and pefloxacin (11, 84.6%), streptomycin (12, 92.3%), erythromycin (13, 100%) and zinnacef (13, 100%). For antibacterial susceptibility pattern of Gram negative bacteria. All isolated bacteria were significantly resistant to gentamycin, perfloxacin, tarivid and streptomycin. Shigella species was resistant to all isolated bacteria. Escherichia coli was significantly sensitive to chloramphenicol and augmentin (7, 87.5%). Proteus species was significantly sensitive to Chloramphenicol (6, 100%) and ciprofloxacin (5, 83.3%).
Conclusion: This confirmed that pathogenic bacteria can exist in cooked foods. Proper steps and good hygiene practice should be employed and good measures should also be taken
Abstract R/0040 - Application of geospatial technologies in assessing the climate change impact on small scale fisheries in Nigeria.

1KAPPO A. ayorinde, 2FAKOYA A. Kafayat, and 2AKINTOLA L. Shehu.

1Fisheries Department, Lagos State University, Ojo; Cooperative Information Network, Ife
2Fisheries Department, Lagos State University, Ojo.
Introduction: Small scale fisheries presently accounts for over 60% of the total fish production in Nigeria and provide a source of livelihood for most inhabitants of the coastal communities in Nigeria. At present, this fisheries sector is experiencing a downturn in fish production both at inland and offshore waters. A culmination of climate change and man induced changes is contributing greatly to this scenario. Nigeria by virtue of its geographical location on the equator and extensive coastal line is vulnerable to climate change and has been experiencing flooding and coastal surges brought by increasing temperature, precipitation as result of global warming. The attendant effect of climate change on aquatic ecosystem are changes in fish diversity, abundance, breeding and morphology. Consequently, this will further result to alteration in fishing period, reduction in fish catches and affect other activities along the fisheries value chain.
Aim: This study aimed to review the application of geospatial technologies in understanding the intrinsic dynamics of climate change as it relates to small scale fisheries.
Materials and Methods: Current and historical literature on climate change and small scale fisheries as well as geospatial technologies application to climate change numbering fifty five articles and journals were reviewed.
Results: This review provided information on geospatial technologies that can be used to determine the climate change trend and its potential impact on small scale fisheries. Furthermore, these information can be used to develop mitigation and adaptive capacities to counter the climate change threat.
Conclusion: Geospatial technologies serve as veritable means of assessing both the historical and current state of Nigeria riverine and coastal system through the use of satellite imageries as well as in-situ data. The geospatial analysis of the different indicators of climate change and development of models to predicts future change offer a source of veritable information that can ensure sustainability of small scale fisheries.
Abstract R/0042 - Mapping of fuel wood types used for smoking fish in relation to occurrence of pahs in smoked fish in Nigeria.

1WHENU O. Olusegun, and 1AKINTOLA L. Shehu.

1Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Ojo
Introduction: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic contaminants present in fuel woods and are hazardous to human health.
Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the level of PAHs present in conventional and non conventional fuel woods used for smoking fish in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from six geo political zones in Nigeria and were categorised into High density fuel woods, Low density fuel woods, and fuel wood derivatives. These fuel wood samples were extracted using organic solvents in Soxhlet Extractor followed by analysis using Gas Chromatography attached with Mass Spectrophotometer. Descriptive statistics was used for anaysis.
Results: The result showed that among the four fuel woods namely Cashew, Dogoyaro, Mango and Teak fuel woods, Teak wood has high level of PAHs in Naphthalene 0.048 ± 0.000132, Acenaphthylene 0.0013 ± 0.00005, Fluorene 0.0105 ± SE-05, Pyrene 0.0105 ± SE-05 Fluoranthene 0.0119 ± 0.0001, Triphenyiene 0.0011 ± 1E-04, Benz(a)anthrax 0.0008 ±SE.
Conclusion: Conclusively, Teak wood was found to be more hazardous than other fuel wood samples analyzed, while the least PAHs were recorded in Cashew. The order of increase of hazard for the fuel words are Teak > Dogoyaro > Mango > Cashew.Therefore, excess use of the fuel woods especially Teak woods should be averted when smoking fish because of the lipophilic nature of PAHs.
Abstract R/0034 - Sustaining Africa’s economy through eco-friendly wastes transition to wealth generation

1ETAWARE M. Peter, and 2AIRENGHIONMWAN O. Patience.

1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria
Introduction: Africa is gradually being submerged by wastes as huge amounts of wastes are generated daily. These wastes are fast destroying the aquatic ecosystem and rapidly occupying productive lands, profitable for agriculture. If left unchecked, Africa will someday become extinct. An eco-friendly transition of wastes by nature’s choicest agents will help re-purpose Africa towards sustainable agriculture and subsequent wealth generation.
Aim: Re-purposing Africa towards sustainable Agriculture
Materials and Methods: Two (2) plant species (Eichhornia crassipes and Wolffia globosa) and three (3) Phytoplanktons (Euglena elastica, Phacus tortus and Trachelon anas) were used as bio-indicators for pollutants in the environment. Thirteen (13) bacteria (Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. mendocina, P. putida, P. veronii, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter, P. cepacia, Bacillus cereus, B. coagulans, Citrobacter koseri, Serratia ficaria and B. subtillis) and two (2) Mushrooms (Pleurotus pulmonarius and P. ostreatus) were used to degrade organic and inorganic wastes in Nigeria and some parts of Africa.
Results: Eichhornia crassipes, Wolffia globosa, Euglena elastica, Phacus tortus, and Trachelon anas, showed high sensitivity to pollution in the aquatic ecosystem (Parmar et al., 2016), Pseudomonas alcaligenes, P. mendocina and P. putida P. veronii, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter effectively degraded spilled petrol, diesel and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons like toluene, P. cepacia, Bacillus cereus, B. coagulans, Citrobacter koseri and Serratia ficaria were used to clean up spilled diesel and crude oil, B. subtillis was used to clean up oil-based paints (Abatenh et al., 2017). Pleurotus pulmonarius (Edible mushroom) degraded spilled crude oil, radioactive and E-wastes, and P. ostreatus degraded plastics (Kulshreshtha et al., 2014).
Conclusion: The clean-up of water bodies, wastelands and dumpsites can help avail more useful space for agriculture and industrial growth in Africa. The microbes can be formulated into pellets, mushrooms packaged as food supplements, while plants as bio-indicators and exported to other continents in exchange for money. In anyway, wealth would be generated at mega-proportions.
Abstract R/0044 - Microbial Load in Five Demersal Marine Fin and Shell Fishes from Nigerian Coastal Waters

1ADEBOYEJO O. Akintade, 1ADEBOYEJO O. akintade, 1CLARK O. Edwin, 1FAJANA O. paul, and 1AWE A. Folalu.

1Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos
Introduction: This study was conducted to assess the microbial load in five demersal species from the Nigerian coastal water (FAO, Area 34)
Aim: with the aim of determining the bio-integrity of these species; Parapenaeopsis atlantica, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus notialis, Portunus validus and Cynoglossus browni.
Materials and Methods: Five hundred and six (506) specimens in all were sampled from 32 fishing trawlers owned by Olokun Pisces Limited (Lat N 60 28ˡ 24ˡˡ, Long E 30 22ˡ 50ˡˡ) using Microbiological methods.
Results: Microbiological analysis showed that total plate count (TPC) was observed to be similarly contained in all the fishes under consideration. TPC, Staphylococcus aureus, Yeast and Mould contained in the five species were not statistically significantly different from one another (P<0.05). amongst other species studied, C. browni had the highest TPC at 300C to range from 5.7×102 – TNTC cfu/g and 2.0×102 – TNTC (too numerous to count) for Yeast and Mould. The corresponding values for other species were within acceptable limit by FAO/WHO standard, which implies that batch of C. browni was not safe for consumption.
Conclusion: The Most Probable Number (MPN) for the demersal species had values < 3cfu/g while the Coliform values for all the species was <10 cfu/g. Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Salmonella spp, Shighellaspp, Streptococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinumand Vibrio parahaemolyticus were analyzed but were not detected (ND).
Abstract R/0128 - INTERNSHIP FOR ENGINEERING GRADUATES: A PANACEA FOR TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.

1ADELAKUN O. Najeem, and 1ADEBESIN A. Akeem.

1The Federal Polytechnic Ilaro, Ogun State
Introduction: It has become appalling that majority of engineering graduates from developing nations lack the technical employability skills, there are complaints from industries that fresh engineering graduates are not industry-ready due to lack of adequate technical skills during and immediately after graduation. However, internships are a great way for students and engineering graduates to gain real-world work experience.
Aim: An internship for engineering graduates; a panacea for technological development was proposed to tackle the unemployment issue among engineering fresh graduates.
Materials and Methods: A demographic survey of fifty (50) industries located within Agbara Industrial Estate, Ogun State was conducted to determine the posting criteria and absorption of Engineering NYSC graduate to industries and also a total of 300 questionnaires were administered to engineering corps members in Nigeria to know about their place of primary assignment.
Results: The results show that 80% of NYSC engineering corps members were posted schools, while 6.67% were posted local government, with 13.33% posted to the industries. It is evident from the results that a larger percent were posted to primary and secondary schools. So, there should be redress to the posting of engineering graduates.
Conclusion: This paper concludes that there is a need for well-supervised industrial training during student’s industrial attachment, and most importantly posting of all engineering graduates to engineering-related fields during the one-year NYSC service program to gain the skill required.
Abstract R/0131 - The State of Medical Imaging and Computer Vision in Stroke Diagnosis and Management in Nigeria

1ORIOKE O. Omoyemi, 2ALAKA . Adebayo, and 1ARIBISALA S. Benjamin.

1Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos
2Health Center, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos
Introduction: Stroke occurs when blood flow to an area in the brain is cut off and the brain can no more receive the required oxygen or nutrients, causing brain cells to die. If stroke is not detected and treated early it can result in permanent brain damage or death. The emergence of various medical imaging technologies like Computed Tomography(CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI), Positron Emission Tomography(PET), Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography(SPECT) etc., has contributed positively towards visualization, diagnosis and patient management. Computer vision technologies have been adopted in stroke diagnosis and management in the developed world but their level of adoption in Nigeria is unknown.
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the state of medical imaging and computer vision technology for stroke diagnosis and management in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: We searched Google scholar with emphasis on studies on stroke conducted in Nigeria using a combination of the following words; stroke, medical imaging, stroke diagnosis and management in Nigeria.
Results: The search produced 224 articles. 87 relevant studies met the inclusion criteria. Further screening led to the elimination of 43 articles, reducing the total number of articles reviewed to 44. Of these, 25 used CT, 13 used MRI and 6 used both. 6 used Deep Learning approach, 23 used Machine Learning, 10 used Image Analysis techniques and 5 used Artificial Intelligent based techniques. Studies were conducted across 14 states in Nigeria.
Conclusion: Our results show that only 39% of states in Nigeria have conducted research on stroke using medical image analysis and computer vision technologies. Also, very few studies have used MRI machine learning techniques. The state of medical imaging and use of computer vision technologies in diagnosis and stroke management in Nigeria is below average and more research efforts are required.
Abstract R/0132 - Review of Traditional and Modern Methods for Human Age Estimation

1OLAWOLE D. OLUWASEGUN, and 1ARIBISALA S. BENJAMIN.

1Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State.
Introduction: Human age is a biometric information with insight on evolution stage of man from infant to adulthood. Understanding human age is very important because age is a predictor of many things, e.g. education, general well-being, retirement, and mortality. There are different age predictive models, but the most common ones are machine learning, neural networks and deep learning. Demographic-based study on traditional (e.g. machine learning) and modern (e.g. neural networks, deep learning) development of predictive model for age estimation indicate sharp gap in percentage accuracy for machine learning, hybridization, and deep learning methods.
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the performance of traditional techniques and modern methods, used in the estimation of age, based on existing studies.
Materials and Methods: Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines was adopted, conducted a search for resources in google scholar. Search terms includes (“Age” OR “Human Age”) AND (“Prediction” OR “Estimation”) AND (Machine Learning) AND (“Neural Networks” OR “Deep learning”).
Results: Search results identified 80 papers after screening titles and abstracts. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to refine the search and the final number of papers downloaded and read was 40. 5 of the articles were from the USA, 2 from Brazil, 10 from China, 4 from U.K, 3 from Myanmar, 3 from Iran, 8 from India, 2 from Tunisia, 1 from Egypt, 1 from Palestine and 1 from Algeria. Analysis shows average accuracy for traditional and modern methods are 89.38%, and 92.92% respectively.
Conclusion: Scientific studies on human age estimation showed application of deep learning for development of predictive model is growing. There is paucity of scientific papers from sub-Saharan Africa, specifically in Nigeria.
Abstract R/0138 - Improvement on Webometric Ranking System for Tertiary Universities in Nigeria

NYAAKU E. Oluwayemisi

No
Introduction: University ranking has become increasingly important in evaluating the performance of institutions after satisfying a common set of criteria’s or indicators. An important factor for the success of a university is its website and web accessibility and in particular its visibility on the web. Therefore, it is important to evaluate their presence on the web as it is to evaluate the educational and research performance of the universities.
Aim: To design and develop on ranking system that encourages research and web presence.
Materials and Methods: Webometric and four ranking systems were considered in this study and two new criteria were identified from them and used to propose a new ranking system methodology. The new criteria included are number of full professors in the university and the total number of patents acquired by the university. The proposed system was implemented using accredited Nigerian Universities and a web crawling technique was developed to extract the values of the criteria for each of the universities and each university was ranked accordingly. Python was used for the system implementation.
Results: The top five universities from the proposed ranking system were University of Ibadan,University of Nigeria, Covenant University Ota, Ahmadu Bello University, and University of Lagos. The oldest university topped the list due to their active involvement in research and patent acquirement for its inventions.
Conclusion: The proposed ranking system gives an objective result in evaluating Nigerian Universities by revealing the strengths on the level of productive research carried out by scholars and researchers in the university. This reveals the possibility of how much grants and recognition an institution is able to receive through the research carried out by its scholars, researchers in the university.
Abstract R/0134 - Seasonal Variation of the Critical Frequency of the F2-Layer (foF2) and its Comparison with IRI-2016 Model during Two Extremes of Solar Activity Period of Solar Cycle 22

1ONORI O. Eugene, 1OMETAN O. Oluwafunmilayo, 1OGUNGBE S. Abiola, and 1UMAR A. Adeoba.

1Lagos State Univeristy, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria.
Introduction: The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is the global accepted model for forecasting empirical ionospheric parameters such as electron density, critical frequencies of ionopheric layers etc. IRI was formed as a united project between the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI).
Aim: The aim of this paper is to show the performance of the latest version of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2016) model in predicting the critical frequency of the F2-layer (foF2) over two equatorial stations during a very high solar activity (VHSA) year (1989) and a very low solar activity (VLSA) year (1986).
Materials and Methods: The data used in this study are the hourly foF2 experimental data observed at Ougadougou (Geomagnetic Latitude 0.59 oN, Geomagnetic Longitude 71.46 oE) and Manila (Geomagnetic Latitude 3.4 oN, Geomagnetic Longitude 191.1 oE) during VHSA year (1989) and VLSA year (1986) and IRI-2016 model predicted foF2 data. Zurich sunspot data was used as index for level of solar activity year. Analysis was carried out by first grouping the foF2 data into four different seasons comprising of three months each. The seasonal means of the IRI-2016 modeled foF2 were compared with the experimental foF2 data. Percentage deviation of the IRI-2016 model from the experimental data was evaluated.
Results: Observations from the results revealed that seasonal variation of the experimental foF2 shows the presence of winter anomaly which is prominent during VHSA year and disappeared during VLSA year. The results also showed that seasonal mean value of both options of the IRI-2016 model showed remarkable improvement over these two stations, although, the IRI-2016 model underestimates and overestimates the observed foF2 at certain hours of the day.
Conclusion: The discrepancy (underestimation and overestimation) in the IRI-2016 model is found larger during VLSA year than that during VHSA year and was unable to capture the winter anomaly
Abstract R/0136 - Random Forest Classifier for Diagnosis of Breast Cancer in African Women

1MACAULAY O. Babafemi, 1AKINNUWESI A. Boluwaji, 2AKANDE A. Soji, 1OLABANJO A. Olusola, and 1ARIBISALA S. Benjamin.

1LASU
2LASUTH
Introduction: Breast cancer is the highest cause of cancer-related mortality among women globally. It is documented that 15% of all female cancer is breast cancer. Diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer in its earliest stage remains the only way to improve its outcome and reduce mortality, thus early and accurate diagnosis of breast cancer is important. Early detection of breast cancer among women in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is very challenging to say the least as factors such as low knowledge of breast cancer, lack of awareness of early detection treatment, treatment cost, poor perception of breast cancer, socio-cultural factors such as belief, traditions and fears affect health seeking behaviour of African women but there is limited research efforts in computational approach to diagnosis of breast cancer in SSA.
Aim: Here, we propose a novel diagnosis model for African women using Random Forest (RF) machine learning technique.
Materials and Methods: : Study data comprised of technical indicators for breast cancer diagnosis, collected from breast cancer patients attending oncology clinic in Lagos State University teaching hospital. A total of 180 subjects were studied out of which 90 were confirmed cases of breast cancer and 90 were benign. Nine diagnostic parameters were included. These are clump thickness, marginal adhesion, uniformity of cell size, uniformity of cell shape, single epithelial cell, bare nuclei, bland chromatin, normal nucleoli and mitosis. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used for feature selection and RF model was used for classification.
Results: The RF model gave an accuracy of 98.23%, sensitivity of 95.24%, and specificity of 100.00% and Area under curve (AUC) of 98%.
Conclusion: The proposed Random Forest model has a good potential at classifying breast cancer in African women. Adoption of computational diagnosis approach in SSA can lead to early diagnosis and reduction of mortality rate
Abstract R/0045 - Heavy-metals accumulation in five demersal marine species from Nigerian coastal waters (Eastern Central Atlantic, FAO Area 34)

1ADEBOYEJO O. Akintade, and 1CLARKE O. Edwin.

1Lagos State University, Ojo
Introduction: The study was conducted on Heavy-metals accumulation in five demersal marine species from the Nigerian coastal water (FAO, Area 34)
Aim: with the aim of assessing the bio-integrity and safety of the Sea foods for export. Fish species are: Parapenaeopsis atlantica, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus notialis, Portunus validus and Cynoglossus browni are from (Lat N 60 28ˡ 24ˡˡ, Long E 30 22ˡ 50ˡˡ).
Materials and Methods: Five hundred and six (506) specimens were sampled from 32 fishing trawlers owned by a reputable private company and assessed fresh for biological (morphometric data) and heavy metals analysis (In-vivo) using 210 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS).
Results: Study revealed the Mean weight (Mean±SD) of P. atlantica, P. monodon, P. notialis, P. validus and C. browni were: 9.42 ±0.26, 96.79 ± 2.38, 26.82 ± 1.34, 284.09 ± 7.34 and 411.09 ± 15.27g respectively. Heavy-metal accumulated in the muscles (mg/kg) showed Lead (Pb): 0.15 ± 0.05 for P. atlantica; 0.12 ± 0.06 for P. monodon; 0.15 ± 0.02 for P. notialis; 0.14 ± 0.07 for C. browni; and 0.14 ± 0.08 for P. validus. Iron (Fe) revealed: 2.7 ±0.07, 2.26 ± 0.06, 2.32 ± 0.08, 2.43 ± 0.12, and 2.42 ± 0.09 respectively. Zinc (Zn) also showed: 8.68 ± 0.12, 8.97 ± 0.14, 9.13 ± 0.12, 8.99 ± 0.11 and 8.86 ± 0.08 respectively. Zn and Fe value for P. atlantica were above acceptable limit by FAO/WHO standard. The decreasing order of mean concentrations was Zn>Fe>Pb. Arsenic (As) and Cadmium (Cd) had values of <0.01 for all the species.
Conclusion: Mercury (Hg) was not detected throughout the study for all the species. The detection of lead, iron and zinc in the muscles of species under study however cast grey light on the integrity and safety of the fish species.
Abstract R/0046 - PLANT PHYTOCHEMICALS AND INHIBITORY ROLES AGAINST FISH DISEASES.

1AWE A. Folalu, 1HAMMED M. Ayofe, 1WHENU O. Olusegun, 1OLARINMOYE M. Oluwatosin, 1OWODEINDE G. Fatai, 2AKINYEMI A. Akanji, 2EZERI O. Godfrey Nnamdi, 2BANKOLE O. Mobolaji, 2OLANLOYE O. Adebimpe, and 1ADEBOYEJO O. Akintade.

1Lagos State University, Ojo
2Federal University Of Agriculture, Abeokuta
Introduction: The Phytochemical potentials of different plant parts have been reported which necessitated further assessement on their inhibitory roles against fish diseases.
Aim: This research investigated the phytochemicals present in the plants of Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), Neem plant (Azadirachta indica), Pawpaw plant (Carica papaya), Scent plant (Occimum gratissimum), Mango plant (Mangifera indica), bitter plant (Vernonia amygdalina), Moringa plant (Moringa oleifera) and parts of the plant used were the leaves and bark.
Materials and Methods: The qualitative and quantitative methods of phytochemical determination were used and assessment of zones of inhibition against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria using in-vivo and in-vitro with plant parts extracts.
Results: Neem, mango and moringa bark; scent, bitter, pawpaw, neem and moringa leaves and whole lemon grass extracts showed best results in terms of qualitative and quantitative presence and were able to exert antibacterial properties against some tested fish diseases of Aeromonas veronii with values of 0.70 and 0.40mm diameter. Highest zones of inhibition was recorded in bitter leaf and lowest in neem leaf against Bacillus subtilis with values of 0.60 and 0.45mm diameter. Highest zones of inhibition were recorded in mango leaf and lowest in neem leaf against Staphylococcus aureus with values of 0.90 and 0.36mm diameter. Highest zones of inhibition was recorded in bitter leaf and lowest in neem bark against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with values of 0.75 and 0.20mm diameter.
Conclusion: Neem, mango and moringa bark; scent, bitter, pawpaw, neem and moringa leaves have phytochemicals capable of inhibiting fish diseases.
Abstract R/0048 - Comparative risk and benefit evaluation of farmed fish (Clarias gariepinus) and imported fish (Scomber scombrus) species commonly consumed in Nigeria.

1OMOLEYE T. Olusegun, 1FAKOYA A. Kafayat, and 1AKINTOLA L. Shehu.

1Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Ojo
Introduction: There is a knowledge gap in the benefit and risk of fishes consumed in Nigeria.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the risk and benefit of commonly consumed farmed fish (Clarias gariepinus) and imported fish (Scomber scombrus) in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: The Clarias gariepinus (farmed Catfish) and Scomber scombrus (Imported Titus) were collected and analyzed for proximate, composite amino acid and mineral content using the AOAC methods.
Results: The mean protein for fresh and smoked fish were (20.87± 0.57 and 24.29±0.16) and Titus (16.22 ±0.07 and 19.38 ± 0.32). Carbohydrate for Catfish were (6.35 ± 0.66 and 11.82±0.47) and Titus (0.61± 0.24 and 3.39 ± 0.58). The total essential amino acid for Catfish were (46.25% and 53.75%), and Titus (45.94% and 54.06%) while the total non- essential amino acid for Catfish were (46.88% and 53.12%) and Titus (45.71% and 54.29%), Lysine was the highest essential amino acid leucine, valine, isoleucine were well represented with methionine being the least in both fishes. Glutamic acid was the highest non-essential amino acid, while cysteine was the least in both fishes. Three heavy metals were found to be higher in Titus than in Catfish (Pb, Fe, As). Lead in Titus (0.07±0.01 and 0.11±0.01) Catfish (0 02±0.09 and 0.08±0.01) Arsenic in titus (1.24±0.01 and 2.89 ± 0.01) Catfish (0.02±0.01 and 0.04±0.01) Iron in Titus (0.09±0.01 and 1.59 ±0.02) while in catfish (0.05 ± 0.01 and 0.75±0.03). Sodium, Phosphate and Calcium were higher while copper, lead, zinc and iron were lower in both fishes.
Conclusion: All were lower than the recommended values. It was concluded that Catfish consumption have more benefits and lower risk than Titus.
Abstract R/0049 - A governability assessment of small- scale fisheries in Lagos state.

1SOGBESAN O. Olubukola, and 1AKINTOLA L. Shehu.

1Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Ojo
Introduction: Governability’, provides a conceptual basis for assessing and improving the governance of societal systems, such as fisheries. The diversity, complexity and dynamism of small-scale fisheries systems require systematic, iterative and contextualized assessments of governability
Aim: Thestudy aimed to assess the governabilityt of the Yovoyan and Ituagan fishing communities with key interest in the role of the State, market and civil society in policy making.
Materials and Methods: This study used semi-structured and open-ended interview with stakeholders and key informants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 50 key informants from Yovoyan and Ituagan fishing communities. The interview included 8 decision makers in the communities (4 from each community). The results were statistical analysed using T-test to analyse the two system (Ituagan and Yovoyan fishing community).
Results: Results from Yovoyan and Ituagan fishing communities showed that governing images are not corresponding with those of the communities in terms of sufficient allocation of resources to implement policies supporting small-scale fisheries and how effective are these policies at addressing small-scale fisheries concern in Lagos State.The test t-analysis show that was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the type of gears used at both coastal waters. However, the 18 fish species recorded in Yovoyan was significantly (p<0.05) higher than 14 fish species recorded in Ituagan.
Conclusion: The income generated from the small scale fisheries remains in the community and contributes to the well-being, growth and local economic development. A comprehensive governability assessment of Yovoyan and Ituagan fishing communities however requires a more detailed methodology invloving other relevant stakeholders participation.
Abstract R/0050 - Mapping of fuel wood types used for smoking fish in relation to occurrence of pahs in smoked fish in Nigeria

1AJIBADE A. Mathew, 1WHENU O. Olusegun, and 1AKINTOLA L. Shehu.

1Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Ojo
Introduction: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic contaminants present in fuel woods and are hazardous to human health.
Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the level of PAHs present in conventional and non conventional fuel woods used for smoking fish in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from six geo political zones in Nigeria and were categorised into High density fuel woods, Low density fuel woods, and fuel wood derivatives. These fuel wood samples were extracted using organic solvents in Soxhlet Extractor followed by analysis using Gas Chromatography attached with Mass Spectrophotometer. Descriptive statistics was used for anaysis.
Results: The result showed that among the four fuel woods namely Cashew, Dogoyaro, Mango and Teak fuel woods, Teak wood has high level of PAHs in Naphthalene 0.048 ± 0.000132, Acenaphthylene 0.0013 ± 0.00005, Fluorene 0.0105 ± SE-05, Pyrene 0.0105 ± SE-05 Fluoranthene 0.0119 ± 0.0001, Triphenyiene 0.0011 ± 1E-04, Benz(a)anthrax 0.0008 ±SE-05
Conclusion: Conclusively, Teak wood was found to be more hazardous than other fuel wood samples analyzed, while the least PAHs were recorded in Cashew. The order of increase of hazard for the fuel words are Teak > Dogoyaro > Mango > Cashew.Therefore, excess use of the fuel woods especially Teak woods should be averted when smoking fish because of the lipophilic nature of PAHs.
Abstract R/0052 - Effects of Electroplating Effluents on the Growth, Heavy Metals’ uptake and Concentrations in Amaranthus viridis

1OLUWOLE O. Surukite, and 1OGUN L. Mautin.

1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo-Lagos, Nigeria
Introduction: Pollution in recent times has become prevalent, most especially in developing nations (Nigeria) due to industrial expansion; thus, releasing pollutants. These pollutants such as electroplating effluents contain heavy metals which are toxic to the environment.
Aim: The study aimed at investigating the effects of effluents from electroplating company on the growth, heavy metals’ uptake and concentrations in Amaranthus viridis.
Materials and Methods: Seeds of A. viridis were obtained from National Institute of Horticulture, Ibadan; Loam soils were collected from Lagos State University and two samples of electroplating effluents were obtained from Grizzi Nigeria Limited, Oregun, Lagos. The seeds were sown, nursed and transplanted in a uniform bucket filled with 5kg loam soil and transplanted seedlings were treated with Effluent Sample A (5 and 10% conc.), Effluent Sample B (5 and 10% conc.) and control respectively. The growth parameter such as plant height, fresh and dry plant weights, shoot-root ratios and so on were measured and the plant samples harvested were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometer.
Results: The results revealed that Effluent Sample A and B are highly acidic and above discharge limits. The results also revealed that 5% conc. of Effluent Samples A and B had more effects on growth of A. viridis across the harvests than 10% conc. in relation to the control. This result showed that the effluent samples affect growth rhythms of the plant. The results further revealed that there are vigorous uptake of heavy metals studied (Zn:27.78±0.16-91.65±0.80, Cu:34.10±0.01-61.39±0.10 , Cr:148.70±0.06-500.00±0.01 and Ni: 71.43±0.01-500.00±0.90) which are far above the permissible limits of WHO/FAO recommendations.
Conclusion: From this study, it could be concluded that electroplating effluents has adverse effects on the growth of plants, increases the metals’ uptake of plants and their bioaccumulations. However, efforts should be made to reduce the metallic concentrations of effluents before discharge enhancing eco-friendly environment.
Abstract R/0053 - EFFECT OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATION BY UNTREATED SEPTIC TANKS AROUND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS IN IBADAN, OYO STATE, NIGERIA.

1REMI-ESAN A. IFELOLU, and 1SOSANYA A. PETER.

1The Federal Polytechic Ilaro, Ogun State
Introduction: Septic tanks are constructed to hold raw domestic effluents that contains human waste, fecal matter and suspended materials. When these septic tanks are untreated or poorly constructed, it affects and contaminate the quality of groundwater.
Aim: This study investigates the quality of underground water contamination by untreated septic tanks in major elementary schools in Ibadan metropolis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 water samples were collected using a 2.5 L plastic bottle for the analysis of the various physicochemical parameters of the water from public and private primary schools. The water samples were digested for metal analysis in determining the presence of heavy metals and microbial analysis was carried out to ascertain the bacteria load of the water samples. These procedures were determined by the standard method as described by APHA, 2017.
Results: The values obtained for physicochemical parameters (pH: < 7.0, Electrical conductivity: 351.54 - 854.20 µs/cm, Total Dissolved Solid: 156.45 – 342.26 mg/L, Biological Oxygen Demand: 2.56 - 9.37 mg/L, Total Hardness: 233.32 – 356.05 mg/L) were all within permissible limits of World Health Organization. The biological parameters were above the WHO recommended limit of zero.
Conclusion: The outcome of the present study suggests that the underground water available around the septic tanks at a distance of less than 100 meters are unsafe for human consumption.
Abstract R/0054 - In vitro Membrane Stabilization and Antisickling Activities of Launaea taraxacifolia Linn.

1BANKOLE O. Olusola, 1OMOYENI O. Cynthia, and 1AGUNLEJIKA A. Ayomide.

1Department of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Pure and Applied Sciences, Federal Polytechnic Ilaro
Introduction: Launaea taraxacifolia (Asteraceae) is one of the undervalued African leafy vegetables with great therapeutic potentials. Reports on the antisickling and membrane stabilization potential of this vegetable are very scanty in literature.
Aim: This study investigates the in vitroantisickling activity and membrane stabilizing activities of extracts of L. taraxacifolia in sickled haemoglobin.
Materials and Methods: Qualitative phytochemical tests was performed to identify the presence of secondary metabolites. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the extracts were evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and AlCl3 colorimetric assay. Sickling of haemoglobin was induced using 2% Sodium metabisulfite followed by treatment with the extract at different concentrations using Parahydroxybenzoic acid and Dioscovite as standards. Membrane stabilization effect of the extracts was evaluated through a standard protocol using Ibuprofen and Diclofenac as standards.
Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin, phenol, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoid, triterpene, coumarin, glycosides, and anthocyanin. The TPC, TFC values were 3,102.30 ±0.26 μgmg-1 GAE, 63.77±0.43 μgmg-1 QE. Percentage of unsickled cells increased with time (0 – 60 minutes), however, a decline was observed at 120 minutes. The antisickling activity of extracts of L. taraxacifolia revealed that the methanol extract (10 mg/ml) displayed the highest antisickling activity (92 ± 0.34 %) which was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than the aqueous extract (77 ± 0.56 %), para hydroxybenzoic acid (90 ± 0.50 %) and Dioscovite (93 ± 0.62 %). At 300 μg/mL, the aqueous and methanol extract displayed a significant (P < 0.05) membrane stabilization activity of 57 ± 0.58 % and 58 ± 0.77 % respectively as against the diclofenac (49 ± 0.82 %) and ibuprofen (51 ± 0.26 %) standards.
Conclusion: These results implied that extracts could be a source of antisickling agents for the development of active drugs in the management of sickle cell anaemia.
Abstract R/0056 - ANTI-GLYCATION AND ANTI-OXIDANT POTENTIAL OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF XYLOPIA AETHIOPICA (UDA)

1BANKOLE A. Habeeb, and 1SALIU H. Olamide.

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University
Introduction: Xylopia aethiopica is a common spice use as flavor and adds aroma to various foods in Nigeria. It is commonly known as UDA (in the South-Eastern part of Nigeria) and it has been reported to have various health benefits including being used as an antidiabetic. Glycation is a complex series of condensations, rearrangements, fragmentations, and oxidative modifications that lead to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). These AGEs are often associated with various complications in diabetes and other diseases.
Aim: This study was carried out to determine the anti-glycation and anti-oxidants properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Xylopia aethiopica seeds.
Materials and Methods: The ethanol and aqueous samples were extracted from ground powder of the spice after soaking in distilled water and 97% ethanol for 24 hours. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) assay, and ABTS•+ decolorization assay. The anti-glycation properties were investigated by carrying out the fructosamine inhibition assay and SDS PAGE analysis of the inhibition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) glycation.
Results: The antioxidant result gotten from these analyses showed that the aqueous extracts exhibited lower IC50 values for DPPH, FRAP, and ABTS•+ (3.14, 0.53, 5.52) respectively compared to its ethanol extracts (3.32, 1.86, 10.05). The results showed that ethanol and extract exhibited better anti-glycation properties at a concentration of 10mg/ml.
Conclusion: These findings revealed that the extracts of Xylopia aethiopica have potential anti-glycation and anti-oxidants properties, and could be used in the management of diabetes complications resulting from glycation.
Abstract R/0062 - Marine Plant Resources in Beach Resorts in Pacijan Island, Central Philippines

1TANDUYAN N. Serapion, 1PASAJE M. Genes, 1GONZAGA B. Ricardo, 1ANOOS G. Wilfredo, 1GARCIANO . Homer, 1ANDRADE B. Norberto, 1ABELLANOS M. Sherlyn, 1MUANA P. Eva, 1MUANA T. Gabriel, 1TAMPUS N. Leif Erickson, 1GONZALES . Jonar, 1ANDRIANO T. Berenice, 1ANDRIANO B. Lorenzo, and 1GONZALES III G. Aderito.

1Cebu Technological University
Introduction: Pacijan Island is noted to be one of the tourist destinations in Camotes Islands because of its beach resorts Plants have been a component of its beach resorts namely: Star Beach, Bakhaw Beach, Sunset Vista Beach, Santiago Beach, Bano Beach Resort, Harbor View, Sea Side Beach, Puertobello Bay and Mahaba Beach
Aim: Hence, their study therefore need to be done as to the status, composition and abundance
Materials and Methods: This study used the transect quadrat method laid in the beach resorts to determine its richness, species composition, occurrence and conditions. Peoples’ perception on the condition of the beach resorts were also taken using an interview guide.
Results: Results shows that there are 10 species of seagrasses found in the beach resorts in Pacijan Island belonging to two families: Hydrocharitaceae (5) and Potamogetonaceae (5) where Cymodocea rotundata and Halophila ovales dominate the 9 beach resorts in Pacijan Island. Macroalgal components show that there are 27 species of algae distributed throughout the 9 beach resorts belonging to 3 families which are Chlorophyta (11); Phaeophyta (10), Rhodophyta (6)
Conclusion: People’s perceptions on the condition of beach resorts shows that more catch are taken from the beach resorts compared to the present. Depletion of seagrasses and algae were felt due to abusive gleaning. There are more gleaners today than the past. Beach sizes differ according to activities of the waves. Many flocked into settlements in beaches unlike before that they are less inhabited Problem on garbage disposal segregation was not properly followed by the beach users and harassment of foreigners to some beach owners and personnel was felt. The significance of the study locations as tourist resorts is widely known. This information is timely as it shows the undesirable implications of unmitigated touristic activity on the aquatic environment. Suggestions for eco- friendly approaches should be emphasized
Abstract R/0063 - ASSESSMENT OF MACROINVERTEBRATES IN FRESHWATER AREAS IN CAMOTES ISLANDS, CEBU, PHILIPPINES

1TANDUYAN N. Serapion, 1ANDRADE B. Norberto, 1GONZALESIII G. Aderito, 1NUDALO L. Jiezel, 1MUANA P. Eva, 1GONZALES D. Jonar, and 1MIRO M. Dharel.

1Cebu Technological University
Introduction: Camotes Islands have several freshwater areas distributed throughout the 3 Islands. As an aquatic environment it might have some flora and fauna inhabiting in them.
Aim: Hence, the study on macroinvertebrates in these freshwater areas particularly in Poro (Panganuron Falls, Anas Lake, Bangisig Falls and Busay Falls and Ponson Islands (Tuburan Spring and Kan-ugkay Watershed) was conducted
Materials and Methods: This study used the actual visits and collection of specimen for identification taking into consideration the physico-chemical parameters of the freshwater areas and the description of habitat of the said animals. Collection was done at the upstream, mid-stream and downstream in case of lotic environment and by several identified areas in lentic environments.
Results: There are 13 species of macroinvertebrates found in the lotic and lentic environments in Poro and Ponson Islands which are broken down into 4 species of mollusks(Stenomelania sp.,; Pomacea canalliculata, Melanoides tuberculata Radix sp).There are 2 species freshwater crab (Geosesarma lawrecei and Geosesarma rathbunae ). There are 7 insects species (Laccophilus minutus, Limnogonus fossarum, Limnephilus flavicornis, Baetis subalpinus, Cratilla metallica and Agabus bipustulatus) then there is1 species of Chironomidae larva (bloodworm).
Conclusion: Macroinvertebrates are not so abundant in the freshwater areas in Camotes Islands due to natural and anthropogenic activities :hence, biodiversity conservation, preservation and protection is a must for their sustainability
Abstract R/0064 - Improved anti-diabetic potential of metformin hydrochloride encapsulated in lipid vesicles

1OSSAI C. Emmanuel, 1MADUEKE C. Augustine, 1AMADI E. Benjamin, 2MOMOH M. Audu, 1OGUGOFOR O. Martins, 1ANOSIKE C. Augusta, and 1NJOKU U. Obioma.

1Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Fac. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Introduction: Metformin hydrochloride (MH), a biguanide, is the drug of choice for the management of diabetes. However, due to its low bioavailability, frequent high dosage is usually administered leading to reduced patient compliance and occurrence of adverse effects. As a result, formulation into lipid nano carriers with sustained release properties is recommended. A number of approaches have been developed towards encapsulating MH in carrier vehicles but there still remain a challenge to get the vehicle in very small (few-hundred nano meter) size for ease of access to the tissues and high encapsulation yield.
Aim: To improve the clinical benefits of metformin hydrochloride by encapsulation into homogeneously dispersed nano-sized lipid vesicles.
Materials and Methods: Lipid vesicles encapsulating MH were prepared by the multiple emulsification and solvent evaporation integrated process. The first emulsification process produced the W/O droplet with MH in the W-phase. The second step involved membrane emulsification forming W/O/W multiple emulsion droplets. Removal of organic solvent from the W/O/W droplets results in the formation of lipid vesicles. The prepared MH-loaded lipid vesicles (MH-LLV) were characterized for particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release; and its in vivo effect evaluated in diabetic animal models.
Results: The average diameter of the W/O, W/O/W, and the resulting lipid vesicles were 192 nm, 52 µm, and 173 nm, respectively, and the encapsulation yield was 40.12%. The formulation possesses sustained release properties and significantly reduced plasma glucose level of diabetic rats compared to free MH solution. The biochemical parameters also improved and pancreatic histology suggests the ability of the MH-LLV to restore the pancreatic cells towards normal status on continued treatment.
Conclusion: From the results, the encapsulation of metformin HCl in lipid vesicles resulted in its improved pharmacological benefits and reduced adverse effects.
Abstract R/0084 - Estimation of in-vitro antioxidant activities of a protein isolate from fermented Cucumeropsis manni (melon) seeds. (2, 2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Nitric Oxide scanvenging activity, Free radical scavenging activity

Introduction: Diabetes is a disorder of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism attributed to diminished production of insulin or mounting resistance to its action. It is characterized by hyperglycaemia which occurs when the cells become unable to utilize glucose and/or when the liver and skeletal muscles cannot store glycogen.
Aim: This work seeks to determine the antioxidant activity of protein isolate from Cucumeropsis manni (melon) seeds Protein was isolated from fermented melon seed-ogiri.
Materials and Methods: Cucumeropsis manni protein isolate was extracted using alkaline extraction and subsequent iso-electric precipitation. Protein determination was carried out using the lowry method, followed by the enzyme inhibition assay.
Results: The results indicate that the DPPH inhibitory activity of the protein isolate increases with a proportional increase in the concentration of the protein, progressive increase in the nitric oxide inhibitory activity of the protein isolate of fermented Cucumeropsis manni (melon) seeds was revealed. It is observed that the reducing activity of the fermented Cucumeropsis manni (melon) seeds protein isolate increases in a concentration-dependent manner and the total antioxidant capacity was significantly high.
Conclusion: However, a protein isolate from Cucumeropsis manni shows good potential as a nutraceutical that can be of good use in the management of diabetes owing to the high antioxidant activity of the protein isolate.
Abstract R/0069 - Protective effects of Sterculia tragacantha extract against hepatic tissue injury in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model

1OYINLOYE E. Babatunji, 2AJIBOYE O. Basiru, 2SHAMAKI E. David, 2ONIKANNI A. Sunday, and 3OJO A. Oluwafemi.

11Phytomedicine, Biochemical Toxicology and Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti 360001, Nigeria; 2Biotechnology and Structural Biochemistry (BSB) Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa
2Phytomedicine, Biochemical Toxicology and Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti 360001, Nigeria
3Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara, Nigeria
Introduction: In recent times hepatic damage associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus has been identified as a major cause of death among diabetic patients.
Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the hepatic gene expression and hepatoprotective potential of aqueous extracts from Sterculia tragacantha (AEFST) in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods: Forty Wistar rats (out of fifty) were made diabetic by intraperitoneally inducing them with 35 mg/kg of streptozotocin. The animals were grouped into control, diabetic control, diabetic rats receiving AEFST (150 or 300 mg/kg) and diabetic animals treated with metformin (200 mg/kg). The experiment lasted for two weeks, experimental animals were sacrificed, and a series of biochemical parameters and hepatic gene expression pattern were evaluated.
Results: STZ administration led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde content levels and a significant depletion in the antioxidant status (catalase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase). Again, STZ induction caused a significant reduction in liver glycogen levels and hexokinase activity while there was a significant elevation in glucose-6-phosphatase dehydrogenase activity. It was clear that STZ induction led to a significant increase in the serum activities of ALT, AST and GGT while there was a concomitant decline in albumin concentration when compared to the control. Added to the aforementioned, there was a significant increase in the hepatic expression pattern of Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4, Interleukin 10, Sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-1C, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta. Histopathologically, the changes were in the same direction with biochemical findings. Daily oral administration of AEFST at the tested doses (150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) and metformin (200 mg/kg) significantly restored all abnormalities witnessed in all the parameters monitored.
Conclusion: Altogether, AEFST possesses antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential in a dose-dependent manner, thereby conferring protection against hepatic injury induced by STZ. Thus, AEFST appears to be an attractive candidate with potential for the novel treatment of diabetic hepatopathy.
Abstract R/0070 - Assessment of serum Creatinine, Urea and Hormonal changes in Perimenopausal women in Enugu metropolis.

1IKEGWUONU C. Ifeoma, 1ARINZE E. Ifeanyi, 1UCHENDU K. Ikenna, and 2IKEBUDU P. Adanna.

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu State.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Medicinal Chemistry, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. Anambra State
Introduction: Background: Perimenopause is a transition from reproductive to non-reproductive stage in a woman. This transition is associated with a lot of hormonal changes which possibly affect many biochemical parameters as well as some renal functions in the body.
Aim: This study investigated the serum creatinine, urea, follicle stimulating hormone and estradiol levels in perimenopausal women.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty apparently healthy women were recruited for this cross sectional study after ethical approval was obtained. Sixty perimenopausal women ages 45-55 years were used as test subjects while sixty premenopausal women ages 25-35 years as control. This study was carried out from April to October 2019 in Enugu metropolis. Five milliliters of blood sample was collected from the participants for the determination of hormonal and biochemical parameters. Estradiol (E₂) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were determined using Enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) method; urea and creatinine were determined using Berthelot’s urease and Jaffe Kinetic methods respectively. All data were analysed using SPSS version 20 at P< 0.05.
Results: A comparism of the mean ± SD of the perimenopausal and premenopausal women showed a significant (P<0.05), higher values in serum FSH (36.76 ± 7.7, 10.36 ± 8.0 miu/ml), Creatinine (83.36 ± 15.0, 74.74 ± 16.0 mmol/l) and a lower Estradiol value (50.52 ± 8.0, 74.68 ± 11.5 pg/ml). There also exist significant positive correlations between Age vs FSH, Age vs creatinine and urea vs creatinine while a negative correlations exist between Age vs E₂ and FSH vs E₂.
Conclusion: This study shows that perimenopause is associated with a form of renal dysfunction and there is need to evaluate renal function during transition into menopause.
Abstract R/0071 - Pesticide Content in Some Selected Fruits and Vegetables Along Badagry Express Way, Lagos, Nigeria

1ADU A. Abosede, 2MEKULEYI G. Olarinde, 3JOSEPH O. Aderinola, 1EDE A. Emmanuel, and 1OGUNLEYE A. Olubunmi.

1Department of Botany, Lagos State University, Nigeria
2Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Nigeria
3Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Lagos State University, Nigeria
Introduction: Fruits and vegetables are edible plant products that are good for human health, thus regular qualitative and quantitative analysis of pesticides present in them is important.
Aim: This study examined the pesticide concentration in fruits (Pyrus communis, Musa sapientum, Citrullus lanatus and Prunus domestica) from Iyana-iba fruit market, and Vegetables (Celosia argentea, Corchorus olitorius and Latuca sativa) grown at Afromedia along Lagos Badagry Expressway.
Materials and Methods: The pesticide residue in the fruits and vegetables were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry while data were collected in triplicate and analyzed using SPSS version 20.
Results: The concentrations of pesticides found in all the fruit samples had no significant differences (p>0.05) and values were within the safe limits prescribed by WHO/FAO. On the contrary, Latuca sativa had pesticides contents whose values were above the WHO permissible limits.
Conclusion: The results indicated presence of trace amounts of organochlorine pesticides in the fruits, Corchorus olitorius and C. argentea, thus indicating that these plants collected from the study area are suitable and safe for human consumption.
Abstract R/0072 - HEAVY METALS CONCENTRATION IN UNDERGROUND WATER AND ITS ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EFFECTS: A CASE STUDY OF SOLOUS DUMPSITE IGANDO, LAGOS

1OGUNRINOLA O. Olabisi, 2JOSHUA . Olu, and 1ELEMO O. Babajide.

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos
2Centre for Environmental Studies and Sustainable Development, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos
Introduction: Metallic and electronic wastes dumped in the dumpsites contribute to the amount of heavy metal in landfill, through which the heavy metals find their ways into the underground water, then contaminate the water. The consumption of contaminated water causes adverse effect on the health of the humans.
Aim: This study investigated the heavy metals concentration in underground water around the dumpsites and its effect on human.
Materials and Methods: Water samples from 12 different locations around Solous dumpsite in Igando Lagos State, Nigeria within a distance range of 0.07-0.72km was collected. A structured questionnaire was administered to 120 respondents to find out their perceptions about the dumpsite environment and ill-health effect of their drinking water. The physicochemical parameters was measured and heavy metals concentration of the water samples were determined using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer.
Results: The water samples from the 12 sites have range heavy metals concentrations thus Lead (Pb) (0.08-1.20 mg/L), Cadmium (Cd) (0.03-0.08 mg/L), Iron (Fe) (1.4-12.3 mg/L), Nickel (Ni) (0.08-0.19 mg/L), Zinc (Zn)(0.05-0.13mg/L) and Manganese (Mn) (0.01-0.04mg/L). It was revealed that age, educational qualification and year of living in the community of the respondents explain a significant amount of the variance in the value of the perception of the respondents on effect of heavy metal contamination. The result shows that over 75% of the respondents was not sure of any prior ailment linked to any heavy metal contamination affecting anyone among them.
Conclusion: In conclusion, all water samples collected were contaminated by heavy metals, although in varying amount and respondents using this water are ignorant of the danger. There is a need to research on human blood sample and increase awareness of environmental heavy metal toxicity from drinking water to avert global health challenges.
Abstract R/0074 - Oral administration of Vitamin C attenuates nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in dichlorvos-induced toxicity in rats

1WUSU D. Adedoja, 1AYENI O. Timothy, 1ADEBOWALE M. Ayomide, 1ABDULAZEEZ A. Olatunbosun, and 2AFOLABI K. Olusegun.

1Biochemistry Department , Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
2Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Introduction: Dichlorvos (DCLV) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide and its exposure in humans has been linked to several adverse health effects. Harmful effects caused by dichlorvos to human health has increased the demand for protective measures against its exposure.
Aim: This study, therefore, aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin C (VIT C) on pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE) and nitric oxide (NO) concentration in Wistar rats
Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into three groups (8 animals/group); The first group serve as a control (received corn oil), group 2 were orally treated with 2mg kg−1 body weight DCLV and group 3 received DCLV plus VIT C (2mg kg−1 body weight) for 21 days after which blood and brain were removed. After plasma, red blood cell and lymphocyte were separated, the biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically.
Results: Inhibition of AChE activities caused by DCLV in the RBC (65.8%) and the brain (55.8%) was significantly (p<0.001) reversed by Vitamin C treatment. Similarly, VIT C supplementation elevated NO levels in plasma, brain and RBC of rats that were reduced by exposure to DCLV. Meanwhile, the treatment was able to mitigate the DCLV-induced increase in IL-6 and TNFα concentrations in the plasma, lymphocyte and brain of the rats
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest vitamin C could attenuation of some of the toxic effects of DCLV.
Abstract R/0095 - Delineation of Aquifers using Electrical Resistivity Method: A Case of Maruwa Community, Lekki, Lagos.

1ADEGBOLA . Bolaji, 2ADEOTI . Lukumon, 2ALLO J. Olawale, 2OYENIRAN . Taiwo, 2ISHIEKWENE M. C, 2ISHOLA . Kehinde, and 2ADEOGUN Y. Oluwakemi.

1Lagos State University, Ojo
2University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba
Introduction: The spate of saline water incursion into the shallow and near-surface aquifers in coastal environments of Lagos state necessitated the application of electrical resistivity method to delineate fresh water aquifers that may support sustainable groundwater exploitation through borehole drilling in Maruwa area of Lekki, Lagos.
Aim: The aim is to assess the potential depth for fresh water in the study area.
Materials and Methods: 2D Wenner resistivity and 20 Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) sets of data were acquired and processed across five traverses in the study area. The 2D Wenner covered 200 m lateral distance which imaged 50 m depth.
Results: This study revealed five resistivity structures with resistivity values ranging from 7.9 – 16 Ωm, 22 – 40 Ωm, 53 – 97 Ωm, 126 – 176 Ωm and 251 – 1653 Ωm which are indications of saline intrusion, clay, sandy clay, clay sand and sand respectively across the five traverses. The VES delineated four to five geoelectric layers which correspond to topsoil (with respective resistivity and thickness values varying from 21 - 2493 Ωm and 0.8 - 1.1 m), clay (11 - 42 Ωm and 1.6 - 66.0 m), sandy clay (59 - 87 Ωm and 1.7 - 26.2 m), clayey sand (50 - 184 Ωm and 1.7 - 26.2 m) and sand (211 – 600Ωm and 8.6 - 25.0 m). The basal sand in VES 5 on traverse two, having resistivity value of 236Ωm but whose thickness could not be determined because the probing current terminated at that depth, gives the only indication of a suspected fresh water aquifer in the area.
Conclusion: The depth to the suspected aquifer is 90 m. Other sand aquifers are inadequate and shallow which predispose them to laterally saline water intrusion. Boreholes could be drilled only in VES 5 locality to depth range of 81 – 99 m.
Abstract R/0096 - Subsurface Assessment For Foundation Design Using An Integrated Approach: Daura, North-Western Nigeria As A Case Study

1ADEOTI . Lukumon, 1ANUKWU C. Geraldine, 2ADEGBOLA . Bolaji, 1ADEOGUN Y. Oluwakemi, 1ETAGBO . Bassey, and 1PONMILE . Eniola.

1Department of Geosciences, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria
2Physics Department, Lagos State University, Ojo, Nigeria
Introduction: A competent foundation is vital to the stability of any structure. In foundation design, an adequate understanding of the geologic materials of the subsurface is paramount. While geotechnical methods provide subsurface information at a specific point, geophysical techniques offer better spatial coverage. Therefore, integrating both approaches can provide more robust information about the subsurface to aid foundation design.
Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the conditions of subsurface geologic materials underlying a proposed tank farm in Daura, North-western Nigeria, to aid foundation design.
Materials and Methods: Electrical (Vertical electrical sounding (VES) and 2-D resistivity imaging (2D ERI)) and geotechnical (Cone Penetrometer Test and Standard Penetration Test) techniques were employed for this investigation. 2D ERI measurements were conducted along five traverses, alongside thirty VES measurements carried out at predetermined stations on the traverses. Cone end resistance were estimated from cone penetrometer tests. Six boreholes were drilled and in-situ measurement (SPT N-values) were taken, alongside soil samples for laboratory analysis.
Results: Electrical resistivity measurements results indicate that the subsurface is characterized generally by a mixture of clay, silt, sand, gravel and sandstone in different proportions down to a depth of about 60 m. Resistivity values within the top 12 m varied significantly horizontally, indicating varying lithology. Generally, gravelly silty, sandy clay/clayey sand characterize depths greater than 12 m, and 'N_SPT' values greater than 40. The cone penetration tests show an increase in the strength of the subsurface material with depth. A settlement of 481 mm was obtained for the study area, while the safe working for pile diameters 300 mm, 450 mm and 600 mm are 504 KN, 1078 KN and 1838 KN respectively.
Conclusion: The marked variation in the lithological materials of the top 12 m, the relatively lower NSPT values and high settlement suggest that a shallow foundation is inappropriate for the proposed tank farm.
Abstract R/0097 - Prediction of Danger Zones Using Ensemble Machine Learning Technique

1OLABANJO A. Olusola, 1ARIBISALA S. Benjamin, and 2MAZZARA A. Manuel.

1Department of Computer Science, Lagos State University
2Institute of Software Development and Engineering, Innopolis University
Introduction: Terrorism can be described as the use of violence against persons or properties to intimidate or coerce a government or its citizens to further certain political or social objectives. Terrorism is a global problem which has led to loss of lives and properties, and it is known to have negative impacts on tourism and global economy. Terrorism has also been associated with high level of insecurity and most nations of the world are interested in any research efforts that can reduce the menace associated with terrorism. Most of the research efforts on terrorism have focused on measures to fight terrorism or how to reduce the activities of terrorists but there are limited efforts on terrorism prediction.
Aim: The aim of this work is to develop an ensemble machine learning model which combines Support Vector Machine and K-Nearest Neighbor for prediction of continents susceptible to terrorism.
Materials and Methods: Data was obtained from an online repository known as the Global Terrorism Database and data preprocessing included data cleaning and dimensionality reduction. Two feature selection techniques, Chi-squared and Information Gain including a hybrid of both were applied to the dataset before modelling. Ensemble machine learning models were then constructed and applied on the selected features.
Results: Chi-squared, Information Gain and the hybrid-based features produced an accuracy of 94.17%, 97.34% and 97.81% respectively at predicting danger zones with respective sensitivity scores of 82.3%, 88.7% and 92.2% and specificity scores of 98%, 90.5% and 99.67% respectively.
Conclusion: We found that the hybrid-based selected features produced the best results at predicting terrorism locations. Our results show that ensemble machine learning model can accurately predict terrorism locations.
Abstract R/0103 - Breast Cancer Risk Prediction in African Women using Random Forest Classifier

1MACAULAY O. Babafemi, 1ARIBISALA S. Benjamin, 2AKANDE A. Soji, 1AKINNUWESI A. Bolu, and 1OLABANJO A. Olusola.

1LASU
2LASUTH
Introduction: One of the most important steps in combating breast cancer is early and accurate diagnosis. Unfortunately, breast cancer is asymptomatic at the early stage, although some symptoms are presented at a later time, but at symptomatic stage treatment could be complicated or even become impossible thereby leading to death. Proper risk assessment is hence very important in reducing mortality.Some computational techniques have been developed for breast cancer risk assessment in the developed world but such techniques do not work well in Africa due to difference in risk profile of Africanwomen.
Aim: In this work, we propose a bespoke risk prediction model for African women using Random Forest Classifier (RFC) machine learning technique.
Materials and Methods: A total of 180 subjects were studied out of which 90 were confirmed cases of breast cancer and 90 were benign. Twenty-five risk factors were included. These are smoking, alcohol intake, occupational hazards and age at menopause . Four approaches were empirically used in the feature selection, these are the use of Chi-Square, mutual information gain, Spearman correlation and the entire features. RFC algorithm was used to develop the prediction model.
Results: We found that family history of breast cancer, dense breast, deliberate abortion, age at first child, fruit intake and regular exercise are predictors of breast cancer. The Chi-Square selected features gave the best performance with 98.33% accuracy, 100% sensitivity, 96.55 specificity and 98% AUC.
Conclusion: Random Forest Classifier has a good potential at predicting the risk of breast cancer in African women.The study helped to identify the risk factors of breast cancer in African women. This is a valuable information which can help African women to pay attention to those risk factors with the intention of reducing the incidence of breast cancer in Africa.
Abstract R/0104 - A Recommender System for Academic Publications Using Content-Based Filtering Techniques

1AJAGBE T. Taofik, and 1ARIBISALA S. Benjamin.

1Department of Computer Science, Lagos State University
Introduction: Publishing is one of the main activities of researchers globally because it gives them opportunity to share the results of their research works. Additionally, the number and quality of academic papers credited to a researcher is one of the criteria commonly used for rating researchers and determining their promotion. Publications can be grouped based on types, e.g. books, journals, monographs and conference proceedings but our focus here is on journal publication. Journal houses vary in location, editorial board, scope and fields of research. A major challenge faced by researchers, most especially at the early stages of their career, is the choice of journal where to publish. The recent tagging of some journal outlets as predatory compounds this situation as researchers are further confused on the choice of journals.
Aim: This research was to develop a recommender system that will guide researchers on where to publish their articles.
Materials and Methods: The proposed system employed a hybridized content-based filtering method, together with Chi-square and multinomial logistic regression techniques. This system generates recommendations from a dataset (526,247 records containing title, abstract, author and link of papers) obtained with the web crawling algorithm (Breadth First Search Crawling Algorithm). The Chi-Square model was adopted in selecting vector space and multinomial logistic regression was employed as a classifier for predicting similar features.
Results: Experimental results show that the proposed recommender system satisfies the researcher’s desired outcome. The recommender system was tested with samples of manuscripts’ abstracts from researchers and the outputs were similar to the possible predictions from the research fellows.
Conclusion: The proposed tool was able to suggest and recommend the most relevant journals and conferences to the researchers based on the input provided (paper title and abstract). The important part of this work is the ability of the system to recommend journals based on their degrees of impact factor.
Abstract R/0105 - Systematic Review of Computational Approach to Diagnosis of Autism

1FAGBEMI-SOLARIN O. Ameenah, and 1ARIBISALA S. Benjamin.

1Computer Science Department Lagos State University Ojo
Introduction: Autism or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neuro-developmental condition that impairs people's ability to learn, communicate, and speak. Though there is no known cause, it is linked with a reduced neuronal size and cell density loss in hippocampus, cerebellum, amydala, increased in cortical thickness and morphomological changes in corpus callosum. In the USA, ASD prevalence was estimated to 1 in 54 children aged below 8 years. There is no recent epidemiology study that gives information on ASD in Nigeria, but recent studies showed the prevalence of ASD has been on the increase worldwide. It is diagnosed with screening instruments and by direct observation by clinical specialists. Computational techniques have been proposed for early and accurate diagnosis of ASD.
Aim: To systematically review the existing computational techniques, specifically, machine learning models, used in the diagnosis of autism
Materials and Methods: Guidelines for (PRISMA) were utilized, Google scholar was searched using the following search terms: (Autism OR Autism spectrum disorder) AND (Diagnosis OR Detection) AND (Machine Learning). Additionally, manual searches were also conducted.
Results: The search resulted in 113 articles reduced to 86 articles after duplicates were excluded. Eighty-six articles were potentially relevant, and their abstract read. Thirty seven were eliminated fourty nine full-text articles were reviewed (including seven articles obtained from the list of references). Twelve more articles was excluded , thirty articles were included in the work of which twenty two involved the use of supervised machine Learning.
Conclusion: A dearth of scientifically published work from sub-Saharan Africa was observed. SVM was observed to be the most used of all machine learning techniques and the US, the country with the highest number of research on the subject matter. Future work should consider the application of machine learning techniques to autism dataset collected in Nigeria.
Abstract R/0106 - DEVELOPMENT OF A PICK AND PLACE ROBOTIC ARM SYSTEM

1ALADETOLA D. Olaoluwa, 1ADELAKUN O. Najeem, and 2AJAYI O. Ayodeji.

1Department of Electrical Electronics Engineering, Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro, Ogun State, Nigeria.
2Technical Support Engineer, Powerex Limited, Omole Phase II, Lagos State, Nigeria
Introduction: It is imperative to note that the pick and place mechanism can replace human arms especially in industries, and it performs the tasks better in terms of speed and accuracy.
Aim: The mechanism developed in this work is a low-cost sensor-controlled system that moves objects at high speed. The system is a simply designed system that imitates human behaviour, applying these behaviours to achieve a certain task in solving the challenges faced by industries in terms of meeting up job deadlines when it replaces humans in performing jobs.
Materials and Methods: This system was achieved using light-weight steel iron for the frames, servo motors, Atmega328 Arduino microcontroller, and ultrasonic sensor to sense any object for picking and placing in industries. Matlab software is used to check for its stability. Mathematical models were developed for the mechanism to represent the kinematics involved at each joint with mathematical variables.
Results: Then, the stability of the system was achieved using a step input signal being a type zero system, and the bode plot, polar plot, controllability, and observability were also determined. The system rise time is 1.01secs and phase margin for the bode plot is 173 degrees. The results show that the device is stable and reliable, which will boost productivity, and reduce the cost of production when implemented in the industries and can also be used in any hazardous location to pick an object from one location and place the object to another location.
Conclusion: The system is not mobile, it can only be stationed at a point moving an object in a conveyor system. Nevertheless, It has an economical advantage over existing ones. It is of a very low-cost, highly reliable, good repeatability, and very stable.
Abstract R/0111 - An enhanced intrusion detection using Naïve Bayes classification techniques and coburg intrusion detection datasets.

1ABAJI O. PETER, and 1ARIBISALA . BENJAMIN.

1COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPT LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY
Introduction: Introduction: Intrusion detection systems (IDS) is a technique used to protect computer resources against malicious activities. In this project, we selected some features from the datasets using boruta algorithm to reduce the dimension and generate the strongest feature from the datasets. We then classified the selected features into three state, namely, Attacker, Normal and Victim using the traditional Naïve Bayes classification techniques which was enhanced with the collaboration with boruta algorithm . We assessed performance of this techniques by comparing it with another common classifier, namely the Decision tree algorithm.
Aim: The aim of this work is to develop a framework to detect attack in a network environment using naïve Bayes algorithm.
Materials and Methods: Methods: Experimentation was based on a publicly available database of CIDDS-001 dataset of IDS (Dataset for Anomaly detection). Features were selected using Boruta algorithm on the labelled dataset. Later, the classification algorithm learn from the training data, based on the class label. Performance was measured using WEKA.
Results: Naïve Bayes techniques gave precision, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 100%, 97%, 98% and 98.08% respectively. On the other hand the precision, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of Decision tree algorithm were 100%, 90%, 88%, and 90.38%. Our results showed that machine learning classification of event on a network using CIDDS-001 datasets was very promising, the simplicity and the conditional independence assumption of each attributes makes Naïve Bayes techniques attractive and appropriate for many domain.
Conclusion: These proposed intrusion detection model will lead to improve monitoring and detection of intrusion in a network environment. It could also help in the prevention of attacks to avoid the damage it will cost on network resources. It is of great importance to have a system that can correctly identify, prevent malicious attack, safe network resources and inform the administrator once an intrusion occurs in a network environment.
Abstract R/0112 - IMPROVING POLICING AND LAW ENFORCEMENT IN NIGERIA USING BIG DATA

KANU K. OSINACHI

LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY
Introduction: Nigeria is a country in West Africa with an estimated population of 170 million people. Crime have become one of the major threats that call for an improved policing and law enforcement in Nigeria. There are many crime that happens regular interval of time ranging from murder, manslaughter, suicide, assaults, and others. In 2016, Lagos made the top on the list of states with a high number of crimes. Large data set is generated annually based on reporting of crime in Nigeria. The study and analyses of crime data can prove very useful to help improve policing and law enforcement in Nigeria.
Aim: The aim is to carry out a study on crimes, analyse crime data obtained from Nigerian Police data repository and develop an improved model for policing and law enforcement in Nigeria using Big Data Analytics
Materials and Methods: The used articles was restricted to articles published in English. we reviewed the reference lists of relevant reviews and meta-analyses using PRISMA framework, We completed the study by engaging two reviewers to blindly carry out a review elimination of non-relevant studies
Results: The study identified 120 articles from database between 2016 to 2020 were carefully selected for review. We identified contribution and the methodology used in the published report. 75% articles consulted shows that computational procedure can be use for analyzing crime dataset for an improved policing policy.
Conclusion: Accuracy need to be improved due to weaknesses in existing policing models. we obtained that the average monthly strength of police deployment for crime prevention, average daily police deployment for crime investigations, and average daily police deployment for court prosecutions are 6153, 1600, and 775 respectively for a population of 13,904,00 in 2019. The findings show that there is need for improved computational model that will foster improved policing and enforcement of law in Nigeria
Abstract R/0116 - Design and Implementation of an Online Tutorial Platform for Higher Institutions

1WHETO . Paul, and 1ARABISALA . Benjamin.

1Department of Computer Science, Lagos State University
Introduction: Teaching is the ability to impact knowledge into student and teaching is one of the major responsibilities of higher institutions. Teaching is required before certificates can be awarded. Teaching can be physical or virtual. COVID-19 has brought about a lot of problems and one of this is the change in lifestyles and service delivery. This has also affected teaching techniques and online teaching is now part of the so called new normal. Tutorials are normally used for supporting the main teaching by lecturers and tutorials can be organized by academic staff or students. Similar to teaching, tutorials can be by physical or virtual. There are many online platforms for tutorials or teaching e.g. zoom, but all the existing platforms were developed by the western world and there is no single tutorial platform developed by Nigerians for Nigerians.
Aim: The aim of this project is to develop a tutorial platform that can be used by Nigerians and non-Nigerians. To the best of our knowledge, this will be the first tutorial platform developed here in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Existing systems were studied to gain understanding of how tutorial platforms work. That was followed by design using use case diagram. The software was developed using iterative waterfall model approach and implementation was done using vue.js, node.js and socket.io. Testing used both unit testing and integration testing.
Results: The proposed tutorial platform will permit learners to have access to video room, chat room and see all participants. IT will also allow tutors to easily upload materials and organize tutorial classes. Students will be allowed to access the platform after the tutor has opened the class.
Conclusion: The project demonstrated that online tutorial platform can be developed in Nigeria. It is recommended that Nigeria should use software developed by Nigerians.
Abstract R/0119 - ASSESSING VULNERABILITY OF SMALL-SCALE FISHERIES THROUGH THE LENS OF WATER QUALITY IN CHILIKA LAGOON, INDIA

NAIR V. Navya

University of Waterloo, Canada
Introduction: Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) have a strong role in sustaining millions of livelihoods worldwide contributing to food security and income globally. But nowadays, the fishing communities are marginalized leading to their vulnerability by the cumulative impacts from natural calamities (such as cyclones) and anthropogenic affairs (such as hydrological changes and fishing techniques) leading to food insecurity, occupational displacement, and outmigration. Rising pressures from natural and human-induced activities result in biodiversity loss, destruction of fish habitats and communities at different biotic scales. These drivers contribute to increasing vulnerability of SSFs around the globe exposed to global changes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the nature of vulnerability caused by hydrological interventions as a crucial driver to SSFs and ways in which SSF communities can respond to these forces.
Aim: The study aims in examining processes and drivers of water quality (WQ) changes in social-ecological system of the lagoon resulting in key vulnerabilities of fishers; analyzing coping and adaptive measures that can create viable SSF. There are hardly few research studies focused on establishing an interconnection of WQ variation and vulnerability of SSFs. My research bridges the gap using Chilika Lagoon, India as a case study exploring the vulnerability of SSF communities.
Materials and Methods: The study adopts a mixed approach employing qualitative and quantitative analysis. In-depth systematic literature review and case study analysis are conducted to fulfill the objectives.
Results: The comparative analysis of physio-chemical parameters of the lagoon waters ranging from 1950 to 2015 indicates a significant degradation in WQ. The variation addresses intricate relation and linkages of WQ changes on biodiversity loss as well as vulnerabilities in fishing communities. The preliminary results will formulate specific responses for SSF communities leading to novel governance approaches for managing vulnerability, strengthening community and institutional adaptation.
Conclusion: Overall, the research addresses sustainable management of SSFs by closely linking hydrological changes.
Abstract R/0120 - BUILDING LOCAL RESILIENCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY IN SMALL-SCALE FISHERY COMMUNITIES OF LAKE VOLTA, GHANA.

AMOAH AGYAPONG . Rosina

University of Waterloo
Introduction: The small-scale fisheries sector continues to suffer from the rapid depletion of fish resources due to climate change. The depletion of these fish resources continues to affect the livelihoods of many fishing communities worldwide. For example, many fishing communities continue to lose their primary source of employment and income due to climate impacts (e.g., diminishing fish production). Yet local fishing communities lack the ability to respond and adapt to climate change's adverse effects. Also, existing national policies on adaptation, mitigation, and resilience have failed to increase local level resilience. These call for increased research and policy attention to building climate change resilience in fishing communities.
Aim: The aim is to explore the fishing communities' perspective on building local resilience to climate change vulnerability by critically examining the achievement of viability in SSF communities of Lake Volta, Ghana.
Materials and Methods: The I-AdaPT provides a useful framework for understanding the climate vulnerabilities experienced by fishing communities, the challenges to building resilience, and the nature of governance responses needed to address the phenomenon.
Results: This paper focuses on designing policies that can facilitate local community resilience to climate change in fishing areas. It also aims at providing pathways towards strengthening community resilience to climate change using existing opportunities and constraints. The study found that Lake Volta local fisher communities adapt to climate change impacts by observing fishing holidays, diversifying their livelihoods, and migrating to cities for alternative employment. However, they have not been included in policy-making adaptation policies ineffective.
Conclusion: To adapt to an unending and future occurrence of climate change impacts, SSF communities will need supporting infrastructure, increase resilience to erratic fishing seasons, and access to coastal resources and different livelihoods. This will require a change in government policy towards enhancing local knowledge and increasing the participation of community members in policy formulation and implementation.
Abstract R/0121 - ADAPTIVE RESPONSES OF SMALL-SCALE FISHERS TO THE VULNERABILITIES RESULTING FROM OIL AND GAS ACTIVITIES

SEKYI . Joyce

Miss
Introduction: Crude oil exploration and production impact fishing activities and cause vulnerabilities amongst coastal communities who engage in fishing to survive. Globally, fishers have reported dwindling fish catch due to climate change, inadequate fisheries management, oil and gas activities, and other environmental challenges. Crude oil production has impacted fishing activities through safety zone restrictions and increased marine transportation.
Aim: Past studies in Akwidaa revealed several vulnerabilities occurring among small-scale fishers since the start of crude oil production in 2007. This study hence aims to investigate the vulnerabilities affecting small-scale fishers as a result of crude oil activities and to examine the adaptive strategies undertaken in response to the identified vulnerabilities.
Materials and Methods: Review of past literature using I-ADapT (Assessment based on Description and responses and Appraisal for Typology) to examine the influence of crude oil production on small-scale fishers' well-being in Akwidaa and their adaptive responses
Results: This study reveals environmental, health, and socio-economic impacts crude oil activities present on host communities. Waste from oil rigs has caused environmental pollution, the extinction of aquatic species, and a reduction in fisher's well -being. Fishers undertake various coping response and adaptive strategies like livelihood diversification. Scientific innovations and future research should focus on mitigating the attendant impacts such as oil spills, air pollution, and livelihood difficulties that come with oil and gas production activities.
Conclusion: Small-scale fisheries contribute significantly to human livelihoods through the provision of food and incomes. Understanding the diverse challenges fisheries face and ways they deal with these challenges helps in enhancing their resilience . Building resilience reduces vulnerabilities these fishers face and help achieve viability. Further research will help gain more understanding on fishers vulnerability and adaptation to support policy i formulation implementation.
Abstract R/0123 - Artificial Intelligence and Academic Achievement

1OGUNSANWO O. Abayomi, and 1KAZEEM A. Gbenga.

1Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro.
Introduction: This research work focused on artificial intelligence and its impact on academic achievement as artificial intelligence has been described essential for academic development.
Aim: To examine the impact of Artificial intelligence on academic achievement.
Materials and Methods: Survey research design was adopted for this study, the population for this study were the final year students and the academic staff of Federal Polytechnic, Ilaro with the population of 2561(2000 and 561) respectively. The psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of the instrument used for this study were tested using cronbach alpha statistics and component factor analysis respectively. A sample size of 346 respondents was determine using Taro Yamane formula. The data collected were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results: The results of the study also revealed that there was a strong positive relationship between artificial intelligence and academic achievement; this is evident by the result of the analyses R2 = .80 with associated ANOVA significant value of P < .01.
Conclusion: The study recommended that every institution should ensure that efforts are geared towards encouraging students and staff to make use of the academic tools made available by artificial intelligence.
Abstract R/0126 - Statistical Analysis of the Variation in the Occurrence of Rainfall Pattern in a Tropical Location, Southwest Nigeria

1OMETAN O. Oluwafunmilayo, 1ONORI O. Eugene, 1OGABI O. Cornelius, 1OGWALA . Aghogho, 1OGUNGBE S. Abiola, and 1ADENIJI-ADELE A. Rasaq.

1Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos
Introduction: One of the obstacles encountered in the troposphere along the path of propagation is rainfall. It is either stratiform or convective in nature depending on the cloud formation and geographical location. The rainfall experienced in the tropics result in high rainfall rate compared to that in temperate region. This has a great attenuation effect on the propagation of electromagnetic signal along the path of propagation. This eventually affects the availability of a reliable communication.
Aim: The experimental study is focused on classifying the rainfall types into stratiform and convective rainfall that occured during rainfall. This analysis is largely based on the intensity of rainfall rate.
Materials and Methods: Six months (May – October 2013) meteorological ground data of rainfall rates on a 1-minute integration time were obtained from Davis Wireless vantage Pro2 weather station in Ota. The ground data were analysed based on their intensities to determine the pattern in rainfall regime in the location of interest. The variation observed in the shapes of the frequency distributions of the rainfall rates is presented.
Results: The result obtained showed that the percentage of occurrence of drizzle rainfall is higher compared to widespread, shower and thunderstorm. This eventually showed that the percentage of occurrence of stratiform precipitation was 80.6% while that of convective was 19.4% but the total rainfall accumulation observed for each was 20.1% and 79.9% respectively.
Conclusion: The result showed that there was high occurrence of stratiform rainfall compared to convective rainfall. This describes the predominant rainfall event in Ota, Nigeria.
Abstract R/0145 - Half-metallic ferromagnetism in half-Heusler AuMnSn:Te

1CHIBUEZE C. Timothy, 2EKUMA E. Chinedu, 3RAJI T. Abdulrafiu, and 1OKOYE . CMI.

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria,Nsukka, 410001, Enugu State, Nigeria
2Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Dr East, PA 18015, USA
3College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Florida, 1709. South Africa.
Introduction: Half-Heusler compounds have demonstrated great potentials for application in spin assisted electronics. Besides, identifying a strategy for beneficial band-engineering is vital for the optimization of spintronic materials such as these half-Heusler compounds.
Aim: The aim is to explore the effect of electron doping on the structural, mechanical, electronic and magnetic properties of AuMnSn 1−x Tex (0 ≤ x ≤ 1)
Materials and Methods: Structural, mechanical, electronic and magnetic properties of half-Heusler AuMnSn and AuMnSn1-xTex (x=0.125) was investigated using density functional theory with the generalized gradient approximation at the experimental lattice constant and equilibrium lattice constant respectively
Results: Both compounds were found to be mechanically stable. AuMnSn is ferromagnetic while upon substitutional doping with the sp element Te, became half-metallic which persisted up to pressure of 24.91 GPa. The local and total magnetic moments calculated reveals that the magnetic moments reside mainly on the Mn atom in both compounds. Ferromagnetic exchange coupling constants for the first and second nearest neighbour interaction was calculated for Mn atoms and fairly high Curie temperatures were obtained within the mean field approximation for both compounds. Pressure effect on AuMnSn1-xTex exposes that the total magnetic moment remains constant while the Curie temperature increases at pressure of 24.91 GPa. We determined the magnetic phase diagram that shows a phase transition from FM state at low Te concentration dominated by the FM Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida-type exchange to antifer- romagnetic state at high Te concentration mediated by the superexchange coupling mechanism.
Conclusion: The results obtained are in fair accord with available experimental data and proposes a new scheme for inducing half-metallic ferromagnetism on half-Heusler AuMnSn
Abstract R/0152 - FABRICATION AND THEORETICAL SIMULATION OF DYE SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL USING ONION SKIN, TUMERIC AND GOLDEN APPLE AS ORGANIC SENSITIZERS

1BOYO O. Adenike, 1IDOWU A. Babatunde, 2KESINRO R. Olasunkanmi, and 1ABIOLA O. Oluwanifemi.

1Lagos State University
2Covenant University, Ota
Introduction: It has become important for us to discover new alternative sources of energy because of the reduction in fossil fuels and the increase in greenhouse gases. Dye-Sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is a new class of cutting edge modern solar cell which could be compared to artificial photosynthesis due to the way in which it emulates natural absorption of sunlight. Despite the benefits of dye-sensitized solar cells, the effectiveness of the DSSCs scheme has been the topic of concern over the previous years of this technology's growth.
Aim: In this study, the performance of DSSCs using turmeric, onion skin, and golden apple as photosensitizers was determined through experimental fabrication and theoretical simulation using MATLAB.
Materials and Methods: Ethanoic and methanolic dyes were extracted from turmeric, onion skin, and golden apple. Using internal parameters of the DSSC appropriate for titanium dioxide (TiO2), the current density-voltage (J-V) curve was determined experimentally (indoor) and theoretically using MATLAB.
Results: Tumeric produced the highest efficiency at 0.1492%, while a maximum efficiency of 0.0170% was obtained from the onion extract and golden apple produced a relatively low performance with its maximum efficiency at 0.0010%.
Conclusion: From the present research, it was concluded that dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using turmeric, onion skin, and golden apple as dye sensitizers are capable of converting solar energy into electrical energy.
Abstract R/0075 - Repression of Complement System by Aqueous Extract of Alligator Pepper (Zingiberaceae Aframomum Melegueta) in Schizophrenia.

1WUSU D. Thona, 1AJILE . Victoria, 1ADEOLA . Segun, 1WUSU D. Adedoja, and 2OGUNDAJO L. Akintayo.

1Department of Biochemistry, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria.
2Department of Chemistry, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria.
Introduction: Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder among nationalities of the world, which has a huge social and economic effect. Scientific therapeutic drugs have proved abortive due to adverse effects. Thus, natural medicine, which involves the use of plant extract, could be promising.
Aim: The study was therefore designed to investigate the repression of the complement system by aqueous extract of alligator pepper on schizophrenia.
Materials and Methods: Male mice were induced with schizophrenia using ketamine and dexamethasone, the mice were treated with aqueous extract of alligator pepper (200mg/ml and 400mg/ml) respectively for 10 days. After which their brain was removed, homogenized, and analyze for dopamine. Blood samples collected from the animal were centrifuged to obtain plasma which was used to determine the level of Complement Component 3, Component 4, and C-Reactive Protein spectrophotometrically. Phytochemical content of the aqueous extract was also done spectrophotometrically and characterization was confirmed using FTIR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, and ANOVA at α0.05.
Results: The phytoconstituents in the alligator pepper plant extract includes, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, steroids, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and cardiac glycoside. With tannins having a concentration of 1292.6 µg/ml, phenolic: 221.7 µg/ml and flavonoids: 105.3 µg/m. Treatment with the plant extract led to a significant decrease in the level of C-reactive protein, complement component 3, complement component 4 and dopamine, in a dose dependent manner in the subject as compared to control.
Conclusion: The reduction observed in the complement system in this study, could be as a result of the phenolics and flavonoids content of alligator pepper. Thus, a probable natural therapy for schizophrenia.
Abstract R/0077 - Invitro regeneration of disease-free Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen plantlets using the hypocotyl

1OKAFOR F. Uche, 1OKPOKWU M. Nwanneka, 2ADEOSUN A. Chidiebere, 1NJOKU U. Ebere, and 1TABANSI C. Emmanuel.

1University of Nigeria Nsukka
2University of Nigeria Nsukka, University of Ibadan
Introduction: Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Violet tree), a medium-sized tree, belongs to the family Polygalaceae. The root of this plant bears suckers, which is the natural source of producing new propagules. This plant is disappearing at an alarming rate. Problems associated with seed dormancy, high mortality rate during early seedling development affected the conventional propagation of this plant
Aim: This study focused on micropropagation of disease-free plantlets using the hypocotyl.
Materials and Methods: Seeds were de-coated, surface sterilized with 70 % (v/v) ethanol for 30 s followed by 5 % (v/v) solution sodium hypochlorite, containing two drops of tween 20, for 25 min and then rinsed thrice with sterile water. The seed were raised into seedlings and hypocotyl excised and used as explant. The hypocotyl were cultured in shoot induction media containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium + sucrose (30 g l-1) fortified with 0-2 mg l-1 2,4 dichlorophynoxy acetic acid , 0-1 mg l-1 gibberellins, and 0-1 mg l-1 6-furfuryladenine either alone or in combination to produce shoots. The shoots produced were transferred to rooting medium containing 0- 10 mg l-1 indole butyric acid.
Results: Results revealed that seedlings were produced after 45 days, as the treatments did not differ significantly (p≥0.05) in per cent germination and germination rate. The highest number of new shoots (2.0 per explant), 3.8±0.08 cm in length and relatively high number of leaves (3.00±0.00) were produced in hypocotyl explants in 1 mg l-1 each for IAA, GA and 6FA relative to other treatments. Minimum number of roots was observed on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg l-1 IBA. The plantlets produced in vitro were hardened and raised in the field (ex vitro).
Conclusion: Disease-free plantlets were produced and these regenerated plantlets would ensure the conservation and sustainability of this plant as a source of medicine.
Abstract R/0078 - Invitro regeneration of disease-free Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen plantlets using the hypocotyl

1OKAFOR C. Uche, 1OKPOKWU M. Nwanneka, 2ADEOSUN A. Chidiebere, 1NJOKU U. Ebere, and 1TABANSI C. Emmanuel.

1University of Nigeria Nsukka
2University of Nigeria Nsukka, University of Ibadan
Introduction: Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Violet tree), a medium-sized tree, belongs to the family Polygalaceae. The root of this plant bears suckers, which is the natural source of producing new propagules. This plant is disappearing at an alarming rate. Problems associated with seed dormancy, high mortality rate during early seedling development affected the conventional propagation of this plant
Aim: This study focused on micropropagation of disease-free plantlets using the hypocotyl.
Materials and Methods: Seeds were de-coated, surface sterilized with 70 % (v/v) ethanol for 30 s followed by 5 % (v/v) solution sodium hypochlorite, containing two drops of tween 20, for 25 min and then rinsed thrice with sterile water. The seed were raised into seedlings and hypocotyl excised and used as explant. The hypocotyl were cultured in shoot induction media containing Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium + sucrose (30 g/L) fortified with 0-2 mg/L 2,4 dichlorophynoxy acetic acid , 0-1 mg/L gibberellins, and 0-1 mg/L 6-furfuryladenine either alone or in combination to produce shoots. The shoots produced were transferred to rooting medium containing 0- 10 mg/L indole butyric acid.
Results: Results revealed that seedlings were produced after 45 days, as the treatments did not differ significantly (p≥0.05) in per cent germination and germination rate. The highest number of new shoots (2.0 per explant), 3.8±0.08 cm in length and relatively high number of leaves (3.00±0.00) were produced in hypocotyl explants in 1 mg/L each for IAA, GA and 6FA relative to other treatments. Minimum number of roots was observed on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 mg/L IBA. The plantlets produced in vitro were hardened and raised in the field (ex vitro).
Conclusion: Disease-free plantlets were produced and these regenerated plantlets would ensure the conservation and sustainability of this plant as a source of medicine.
Abstract R/0081 - Pancreatic Lipase Inhibition efficacy by a protein isolate from fermented Cucumeropsis manni (melon) seeds

1FAJANA O. Olusegun, 1OGUNRINOLA O. Olufunmilayo, 1ADU B. Oluwatosin, and 1ELEMO O. Babajide.

1Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo
Introduction: Lipases (E.C. 3.1.1.3) are generally used as biocatalysts in organic industries and thus they are widely used in organic synthesis, they are involved in many reactions like esterification, alcoholysis, aminolysis and transformation reactions. Lipases catalysis triglycerides to diglycerides, mono-glycerides, glycerol and fatty acids. Increased triglyceride level in plasma is a major factor that contributes triglyceride absorption and ultimately increases the risks of cardiovascular diseases
Aim: To study the in-vitro inhibition of pancreatic lipase activities of fermented Cucumeropsis manni (melon) seeds protein isolate.
Materials and Methods: The Cucumeropsis manni protein isolate was extracted using alkaline extraction and further subjected to iso-electric precipitation. The determination of protein assay was done and the enzyme inhibitory activity was carried out. The enzyme kinetics was carried out to determine the mode of inhibition.
Results: The concentration of crude protein was estimated to be 16mg/ml, with an IC50 value of (2.04±0.34µg/ml), the optimum percentage inhibitory activity of pancreatic lipase was calculated to be 84% with optimum pH 9 while the optimum temperature for the activity was observed to be 40oC. The substrate concentration was determined and the mode of inhibition reveals mixed competitive inhibition.
Conclusion: These results showed that the presence of lipase inhibitor in Cucumeropsis manni seeds with a high source of the protein indicate that this bioactive compound can be used in the management of diabetics.
Abstract R/0066 - Effect of photoautotrophic, mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures on biomass and lipid productivities of Scenedesmus dimorphus (Turpin) Kützing for biofuel production.

1OGBONNA E. Kenneth, 1AKOR O. Joseph, 1OGBONNA C. James, and 1NJOKU U. Obioma.

1University of Nigeria, Nsukka
Introduction: Due to environmental deterioration caused by fossil fuel energy exploration and consumption and global warming as a result of accumulation of greenhouse gasses, there is an increasing interest in micro-alga energy as it is widely believed to have potential as alternative source of energy which can completely substitute fossil fuel energy.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to cultivate Scenedesmus dimorphus under different culture conditions in order to increase biomass yields and lipid productivities for biofuel production.
Materials and Methods: Scenedesmus dimorphus was cultivated under photoautotrophic, mixotrophic and heterotrophic conditions for 14 days using some organic carbon sources such as glucose, ethanol and glycerol in BG 11 medium. Biomass yields, lipid contents, lipid productivities, specific growth rates, biomass doubling time, total chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of Scenedesmus dimorphus were analyzed.
Results: In all treatments, mixotrophic cultures performed better than photoautotrophic and heterotrophic cultures for biomass production, lipid contents and lipid productivities. Among the carbon sources applied, glucose proved to be the best carbon source with highest specific growth rate (0.24±0.03 day-1), biomass doubling time (2.89±0.01 day-1), maximum biomass yield (117.14±0.01 mgL-1day-1) and lipid productivity (25.30±0.01 mgL-1day-1) followed by ethanol and glycerol. Ethanol achieved the highest lipid content (29.00±0.80 %), maximum chlorophyll content (6.29 µg/ml) and carotenoids contents (2.17 µg/ml) followed by glucose and glycerol. GC-MS results showed that the most abundant fatty acids relatively found across all the cultures were palmitic and linolenic acids. The major fatty acids formed were C16 and C18 fatty acids. C16 fatty acids ranged from 28.00% to 55.67% while C18 fatty acids ranged from 28.47% to 70.27%.
Conclusion: The results obtained highlighted the effectiveness of mixotrophic and heterotrophic cultures in promoting biomass and lipid productivities of S. dimorphus for biofuel production.
Abstract R/0086 - Pancratic Lipase Inhibition efficacy by a protein isolate from fermented Cucumeropsis manni (melon) seeds

1FAJANA O. Olusegun, 1OGUNRINOLA O. Olufunmilayo, 1ADU B. Oluwatosin, and 1ELEMO O. Babajide.

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University
Introduction: Lipases (E.C. 3.1.1.3) are generally used as biocatalysts in organic industries and thus they are widely used in organic synthesis, they are involved in many reactions like esterification, alcoholysis, aminolysis and transformation reactions (Ghori et al., 2011). Lipases catalysis triglycerides to diglycerides, mono-glycerides, glycerol and fatty acids. Increased triglyceride level in plasma is a major factor that contributes triglyceride absorption and ultimately increases the risks of cardiovascular diseases
Aim: This work is to study the in-vitro inhibitory activities of fermented Cucumeropsis manni (melon) seeds protein isolate.
Materials and Methods: The Cucumeropsis manni protein isolate was extracted using alkaline extraction and further subjected to iso-electric precipitation. the determination of protein was carried out followed by the enzyme inhibitory assay activity and the enzyme kinetics to determine the mode of inhibition.
Results: The concentration of crude protein was estimated to be 16mg/ml, with an IC50 value of (2.04±0.34µg/ml), the optimum percentage inhibitory activity of alpha-amylase was calculated to be 84% with optimum pH 9 while the optimum temperature for the activity was observed to be 40oC. the presence of metal acts as a good activator for the inhibitory activity of the protein isolate. The substrate concentration was determined and the mode of inhibition reveals mixed competitive inhibition
Conclusion: The presence of lipase inhibitor in Cucumeropsis manni seeds with a high source of the protein indicates that this bioactive compound can be used in the management of diabetics.
Abstract R/0089 - Effects of Light Intensity on the Growth and Nutritional Composition of Basella alba

1OSINAIKE S. Titilola, and 1OGUN L. Mautin.

1Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo-Lagos
Introduction: Light is one of the essential factors affecting plants’ growth, development and metabolites composition. However, not all plants grow under same light conditions. Thus, all plants have their own optimal light intensity ranges for efficient physiological metabolism.
Aim: This study aimed at determining effects of light intensity on the growth and nutritional composition of Basella alba.
Materials and Methods: Mature seeds of Basella alba were obtained from Lusada market, Ado-Odo/Ota L.G.A, Ogun State, Nigeria; the loam soil was obtained from Homes and Garden at Officers’ Village along LASU-Igando road, Ojo, Lagos State. The seeds were sown in eight troughs filled with the loam soil. The troughs were divided into two groups: Group A- the low light intensity is placed under constant light of 5LUX while Group B-the adequate light intensity group is placed under different light intensities-6755LUX, 11762LUX, 81920LUX, 38217LUX taken at 9a.m, 12p.m, 3p.m and 6p.m respectively. The nutritional compositions such as thiamine, vitamin A, ascorbic acid, total carbohydrate and Iron contents were done using Standard Analytical procedures.
Results: The results revealed that stem girth, numbers of leaf and so on favoured plants under light condition except stem heights which favoured only plants under low light condition. The results also showed that the value of nutrients per 100g fresh weight were, total amino acid (91.76mg), sugar (57.71%), iron (3.9mg), vitamin A (47.07mg), vitamin B1 (0.074mg) and vitamin C (100.95mg) in Group B compared to (72.83mg), (33.71%), (1.41mg), (43.79mg), (0.051mg) and (68.01mg) respectively in stressed group plants. All these variances observed in both growth and nutritional compositions could be attributed to photosynthetic deficiency of plant under a low light condition.
Conclusion: It could be concluded from the study that light intensity affects greatly the growth of plants and their nutritional compositions. Thus, efforts should be made to supply plants with optimum light required.
Abstract R/0090 - AKAP4, DAZL & PRM2 expression in testes of male wistar rats administered hydroethanolic extract of Cyathula prostrata leaf

1OJEKALE B. Anthony, 1JEWO I. Peter, 1LASISI O. Malik, 1BAMGBOSE A. Catherine, 1OGUNTOLA . Jamiu, 1ADELE L. Adetoun, 1OSUNDARE E. Babatunde, 1LAMUREN . Boluwatife, 1ORI . Blessing, and 1ACHEAMPONG . Stephen.

1Lagos State University
Introduction: Spermatogenesis is a process that leads to the production of mature male sex cells. A disorder in any of the stages of spermatogenesis can cause infertility. Fertility in men depends on the quantity, quality, motility and morphology of sperm cells, and an omission of any of these factors causes infertility. Cyathula prostrata is a tropical herbal plant known for its antioxidant potentials and medicinal properties.
Aim: In this study, spermatozoan quality was assessed by evaluating the presence of three stage-specific gene transcripts selected based on their different expression stage in the testes of experimental rats.
Materials and Methods: Rats were orally administered with hydroethanolic extracts of Cyathula prostrata (50mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 150mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 250mg/kg) for 72 days. Organs were harvested and screened using RT-PCR, histopathology and for semen parameters analysis.
Results: Micrograph from testes in all experimental groups shows seminiferous tubules with normal and dense cell population which suggests adequate spermiogenesis. The expression of testes specific genes DAZL, AKAP4 and PRM2 in groups fed with oral 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg Cyathula prostrata is similar to control group (fed water) which indicates that a very significant portion of seminiferous tubules from the testes in these groups contain cells in all stages of maturation in the spermatogenic series i.e. spermatogonia, spermatids and matured spermatozoa. The expressions of these genes were reduced in rats fed with 150mg/kg, 200mg/kg and 250mg/kg of Cyathula prostrata suggesting impaired spermatogenesis at those extract concentrations.
Conclusion: These results suggests that Cyathula prostrata might be implicated in spermatogenesis at low concentrations (100mg/kg) and impairs it at higher concentrations.
Abstract R/0091 - APIGENIN PRESERVES SYMBIOTIC GUT MICROBIOME AND MITIGATES DEXTRAN SULPHATE SODIUM-INDUCED INFLAMMATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MICE MODEL OF ACUTE ULCERATIVE COLITIS

1OGUNGBE F. Bimpe, and 1AROWOSEGBE A. Michael.

1Lagos State University, Ojo Campus
Introduction: Anaemia, inflammation and oxidative stress are hallmarks of ulcerative colitis. Natural agents are constantly being sourced for in the management of chronic disorders due to resultant side effects from synthetic drugs. Apigenin is recently being exploited due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Aim: This study aimed to assess its protective role on biochemical and hematological parameters and gut microbiome of mice model of acute ulcerative colitis.
Materials and Methods: 60 male Balb/c mice (20-25 g) were evenly distributed into five groups each having 12 animals. Control [1% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO)]; Apigenin (10mg/kg apigenin dissolved in DMSO, administered intraperitoneally); DSS [3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administered through their drinking water for five days); DSS+Apigenin Pretreated (10mg/kg apigenin for seven days and DSS from the third day); DSS+Apigenin Coadministered (apigenin and DSS for five days). The mice were sacrificed after the third and fifth day of DSS administration. Their colons were excised and blood samples were collected for antioxidant and hematological assessment. Stool samples were cultured for microbial assessment. Biochemical results were analyzed using GraphPad Prism 6.0, P < 0.05 was considered significantly different.
Results: From the results, apigenin significantly attenuated DSS-induced shortened colon length, bodyweight loss, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis (motile) and Giardia lamblia which were seen in the DSS group were absent upon treatment with apigenin in Apigenin and Apigenin+DSS (Pretreated and Coadministered) groups. An insignificant increase in serum packed cell volume, haemoglobin and lymphocytes count and a significant reduction in differential neutrophil count (p < 0.05) were observed in Apigenin+DSS groups compared with DSS.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the potential of apigenin to protect against ulcerative colitis-induced anemia, inflammation, oxidative stress, and disruption of colonic mucosal by parasitic gut microorganisms.
Abstract R/0092 - PROTECTIVE ROLE OF Momordica charantia CO-ADMINISTERED WITH APIGENIN AGAINST DEXTRAN SULFATE SODIUM-INDUCED ULCERATIVE COLITIS IN MALE AND FEMALE Balb/c MICE

1OGUNGBE F. Bimpe, 1ASUNI O. Abdulkabir, 1DANMOLE A. Fawzyyah, and 2IYAPO . Oluwadamilare.

1Department of Biochemistry, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
2Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
Introduction: In the past decades, there is a steady increase in the occurrence of ulcerative colitis, a known precursor in the formation of carcinoma of the colon. This trend is worrisome and there is an urgent need to curb it. The drawback of the current treatment is remission with complications. Hence researchers seek cure from natural therapy.
Aim: This study aimed at evaluating the protective role of Momordica charantia (MC) crude extract co-administered with apigenin (a natural flavone) on impaired antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status of male and female mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis.
Materials and Methods: Acclimatized male (n=64) and female (n=64) Balb/c mice were divided into eight groups and were treated orally for seven days. Groups I-IV (Control - normal saline; DSS - 3% Dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water; Apigenin - 10mg/kg apigenin dissolved in dimethylsulphoxide, respectively). Groups V - VIII (Apigenin+DSS, MC+DSS, Apigenin+MC, Apigenin+MC+DSS). They were daily weighed and sacrificed on the eighth day. Biochemical and histological assessment of the colon was done.
Results: Results showed that apigenin and Momordica charantia significantly attenuated DSS-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in female mice compared with the male. Histological examination showed that both treatments significantly prevented mucosal erosion and preserved colonic mucosal architecture in both male and female mice.
Conclusion: From the result, it can be concluded that combined use of Momordica charantia and apigenin could serve as a potential therapy for ulcerative colitis as a result of their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.
Abstract R/0093 - Antioxidant and Esterases Activites of diabetes-induced rat reveals the significant distinction in tissues compartmentalization.

1WUSU D. Adedoja, 1LIADI O. Ahmed, 1SALIU H. Taiwo, 1OKIKIRI E. Anaimi, and 2AFOLABI O. Kayode.

1Biochemistry Department , Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
2Department of Biochemistry, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
Introduction: Enormous complications associated with diabetes contribute to the therapeutic challenge confronting most of the world including developing countries.
Aim: To investigate the effects on diabetes mellitus on esterases and antioxidant enzymes activities in compartmentalization tissues of the rat
Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into two groups of 10 animals each. The experimental group was established diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, freshly dissolved in citrate buffer, pH 4.5, 60 mg/kg) and administered intraperitoneally, while the control group received buffer only. Blood glucose and weight of the animals were monitored for 3 days after which blood, liver and brain were removed and biochemical parameters determined spectrophotometrically.
Results: Diabetes produced the various degree of alterations in antioxidant defence mechanism and esterases activities that are compartment specific. Acetylcholine esterase (AcCHE) activity was inhibited to varying extents. While AcCHE was inhibited to the tune of 39% in plasma, 33% in brain and 30% in liver, activation of the activity was observed in the red blood cell (RBC). The same trend of significant (p < 0.001) inhibition was observed with arylesterase, plasma (44%), brain (77%), liver (48%) and activation in the RBC. Diabetes induced significantly (p<0.001) inhibited activities of catalase (10, 13-fold), Glutathione-S-transferase (10, 3-fold), and Superoxide dismutase (3, 6-fold) in the brain and liver respectively compared to control more than the other compartments but activation was also observed in the RBC of these enzymes except for catalase.
Conclusion: In conclusion, distinct compartments effects of diabetes seen in this study could suggest a new approach for effective and safer therapeutics.
Abstract R/0094 - Morphological Study on Certain Members of the Malvaceae Family in Rivers State, Nigeria

1UDOFIA E. Janet, 1GREEN O. Blessing, and 1AJURU G. Mercy.

1Dept. of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Rivers State University, Nkpolu-Oroworuokwo, P.M.B. 5080, Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria
Introduction: Morphological study was carried out in five plant species namely: Hibiscus rosa- sinensis L., Abelmoschus caillei (A.Chev.) Stevels, Abelmoschus esculentus (L) Moench, Sida acuta Burm. f. and Sida rhombifolia L. belonging to three genera of the family Malvaceae. The Malvaceae are herbs, shrubs or lianas although there are some trees. They can easily be recognized in the field by their funnel shaped flowers with five separate petals and a distinct column of stamens surrounding the pistil. They are of great economic importance because nearly all genera can produce some kind of fibres.
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the morphology of five species belonging to three genera of the Malvaceae family with the view to provide additional information for the delimitation of the family and a better understanding of the relationship between and among these species in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Fresh mature plants were collected for the morphological investigation. Qualitative characters of leaf (shape, apex, margin and base), stem, root, flowers (colour and number of whorls) and fruit were observed and pictures taken. Measurement of the leaves, petiole, floral parts and seeds were taken and recorded.
Results: The results showed variations in the morphology of leaves, fruit types, colour and sizes of floral parts which were found to be diagnostic in the studied species. Flower colour and sizes of floral parts were equally of interest and seem to be similar in species of the same genus. Fruit types were the same for the same genera hence, capsules in Abelmoschus species and schizocarps in the Sida species. Fruit sizes were diagnostic with the smallest recorded in S. acuta. Length of fruit stalk was also taxonomically diagnostic with the longest in A.esculentus (3.5-7.1cm long).
Conclusion: The results obtained in the study could be used as diagnostic tools for delimiting the species.
Abstract R/0061 - DETERMINING APPROPRIATE METRICS IN RETRIEVAL EVALUATION SCHEMES IN CONSIDERATION OF PRECISION, RECALL, F-SCORE, AND RANKS.

1DOSUMU O. Uthman, and 1ENIKUOMEHIN A. Oluwatoyin.

1Department of Computer Sciences, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos State.
Introduction: As with most Information Retrieval (IR) studies, evaluation plays a vital part in determining the most relevant set of documents that satisfies the user’s information need. In many reported schemes, both binary and graded judgement-based evaluation metrics are considered when determining the performance of an information retrieval system. Determining the most appropriate metric for a particular IR experimental set up remains a major concern in retrieval research domain.
Aim: This study aims to develop a model for determining the most appropriate metrics for a given experimental framework.
Materials and Methods: The Confusion Track data of Trec 5 was used on the Normalized Discounted Cumulative Gain scheme to observe the generated Receiver Operating Characteristics curve. The Cranfield approach was used in data validation.
Results: Result shows that the scheme generated a Receiver Operating Characteristics curve with an accuracy of 92% relation which efficiently suggests the most appropriate metric for a given experimental set-up.
Conclusion: We have proposed a technique for determining the most efficient metric for a given experimental framework. This methodology joins the advantages of a Cranfield approach with a simple click model to validate the result, which can be set to better suit the characteristics of the evaluation metrics in particular and the Information Retrieval task in general.
Abstract R/0065 - Embedded System Implementation for Ground Vibration Monitoring

1MATTHEW . S, 1ADEBAYO P. T, and 2ALUKO O. T.

1Yaba College of Technology
2Federal College of Education (Technical), Akoka
Introduction: The characteristics of ground vibration is known to precede major earth quakes. The possibility of a system to monitor ground vibration is a first-hand means of preventing life and property loss as a result of earth quake.
Aim: Instrumentation system for monitoring ground vibration has been implemented.
Materials and Methods: The Instrumentation System utilizes the BMA180 accelerometer and Atmel 32 – bit ARM cortex M0 microcontroller with 48MHz for fast data sampling at very high resolution.
Results: The embedded software used for the microcontroller operation was written and compiled using the Arduino IDE (Integrated Development Environment) which is in compliance with embedded C++ programming language and it provides support for all Atmel microcontroller. The implemented system was used to monitor vibrations from passing train and vehicular traffic. The data acquired with the implemented system is a 3D ground motion by a microprocessor based smart sensor and analyzed on MS Excel. The highest Peak Particle Velocity recorded from the Railway crossing was 0.74mm/s.
Conclusion: The implemented system can respond to the faintest sign of earth movement on the 3-Dimension coordinate and also capable of monitoring ground vibration through efficient data acquisition using embedded system.
Abstract R/0067 - C17O Imaging of Massive Young Stellar Object G358.46−0.39 with ALMA

1UGWU J. Chukwuebuka, 2CHIBUEZE O. James, and 3CHUKWUDE E. Augustine.

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria/Department of Science Laboratory Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria/Centre for Space Research, North West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa
3Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Introduction: In spite of numerous researches, the formation processes of high-mass stars remain poorly understood due to their complex environment. Continuum and line emissions observed with ALMA provide better understanding of earliest stages of massive star formation. G358.46−0.39 is a good site for studying ongoing massive star formation activities such as gas outflows.
Aim: High resolution archival ALMA data of G358.46−0.39 is used in this work to probe the gas kinematics and provides better understanding of high-mass star formation scenario in G358.46−0.39.
Materials and Methods: ALMA data of G358.46−0.39 is an already observed and reduced data in FITS file downloaded from ALMA Science Archive. The FITS are analyzed to obtain the continuum and line details. Continuum and line analysis are employed in the method of data analysis, using CASA, STATCONT, Lineid_pyplot, Aplpy, Matplotlib_pyplot and PIL.
Results: Our results reveal four continuum emission cores, namely MM1a, MM1b, MM1c and MM2. The peak flux density of MM1a, MM1b, MM1c and MM2 are, respectively, 137.0, 44.3, 10.1 and 41.2 mJy/beam, which suggest that MM1a is the most evolved object. Also, MM1a and MM2 are found to be associated with 6.7 GHz methanol masers, which is a signature of ongoing massive star formation. On the other hand, only MM1a, out of the four cores is found to be associated with near infrared object. The C17O zero moment map shows dominant emission in only MM1a, giving strong support for more evolved phase of evolution in MM1a than the other three cores. Strong double wings are seen in C17O spectrum, which is a clear indication of bipolar outflows. Blue-shifted and red-shifted emissions are seen north-west and south-east of MM1a, respectively, showing strong presence of bipolar outflow.
Conclusion: The association of continuum emission, C17O emission, 6.7 GHz methanol masers and near infrared objects with G358.46−0.39−MM1a provides strong evidence of ongoing massive star formation.
Abstract R/0068 - Investigating the Deterioration of Highway in Anambra sedimentary basin using Integrated Electrical methods: A case study of part of two highway road in Nsukka, Southeastern, Nigeria

1OSSAI M. Ngozi, 1OKEKE N. Francisca, and 1OBIORA N. Daniel.

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria
Introduction: The Vertical Electrical Sounding and electrical resistivity tomography survey employing Schlumberger and Wenner technique respectively was utilized in investigating the causes of road failure in two federal highway roads in Nsukka sedimentary basin.
Aim: This investigation aimed at delineating the geoelectric and geologic parameters of the subsurface in order to determine the main causes of the highway failure and to identify possible zones of untimely damage.
Materials and Methods: The survey was carried out in the failed and stable portions of the highway. The roads were laterally profiled using resistivity method at 5m intervals and fifteen Schlumberger Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were obtained.
Results: The quantitative interpretation of the VES results established the presence of five to six subsurface geologic layers which are topsoil, clay intercalated with sandy-silt, fine sand, medium sand, medium coarse sand and coarse sand with resistivity and thickness varying respectively from 40.4-1841.1 Ωm, 108.8-11730.1 Ωm, 264.8-73324.3 Ωm, 1467.3-58535.7 Ωm, 312.8-14013 Ωm, 6892.0 Ωm to infinity and 0.7-3.8 m, 1.5-17.9 m, 5.0-49.7 m, 22.4-174.3 m, 154.4 to infinity. Four wenner ERT profiles were taken along the highway. The first three layer materials overlying the aquifer at the failed portion of the road has low resistivity while the stable part is more resistive.
Conclusion: The correlation between apparent resistivity values of subsurface materials variation of the geoelectric properties proves that Vertical Electrical Sounding and Electrical Resistivity Imaging is an interesting tool in estimating the competence of subsurface materials on which engineering structures are constructed.
Abstract R/0080 - MANGROVE CLAM (Adontia edentula Linn. 1758) :AS A RESOURCE, FOOD AND LIVELIHOOD OF CAMOTES ISLANDS, CENTRAL PHILIPPINES

1TANDUYAN N. Serapion, 1ANDRIANO T. Berenice, 1PASAJE M. Genes, 1MUANA T. Gabriel, and 1ABELLANOSA M. Sherlyn.

1Cebu Technological University
Introduction: Imbaw known as mangrove clam (Adontia edentula) is an abundant resource in the mangrove areas of Camotes Islands, Cebu, Philippines. Overexploitation of the resource happened due to overpopulation and open access conditon Hence, this study was conducted.
Aim: To determine perceived abundance, food processing and livelihood dependant of Camotesl Islands,Cebu Philippines on mangrove clam locally known as imbao.
Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was made to serve as an interview guide to the gleaners, vendors and selected inhabitants of Camotes Islands.
Results: Results show that imbaw are usually found in muddy areas with less pneumatophores and usually caught 2 feet below the surface. They are gathered throughout the year as long as there is low tide. Phases of the moon have nothing to do with its abundance. Gathering techniques usually done by visual techniques and direct touching of the bottom. Perceived distance between clams is 3 meters. Imbaw is prepared as tinola, broiled and salad (kinilaw). Broiled imbaw mixed with a bit of margarine is excellently served during special occasions. Gleaning usually is concentrated in mangrove areas of Teguis, Poro Cebu being the largest mangrove area in Camotes Islands. Marketing was done through middle men with an average of 5 pieces large clams and 15 pieces smaller clams in an hour of gleaning. Prices for bigger clams range from Php2.00 to Php3.00 per piece and smaller clams is Php0.50 to Php1.00 each. Results further show that 1/3 of their catch was left for the gleaners' kitchen and 2/3 for the market. Proceeds of clam gleaning are usually good for food purposes only.
Conclusion: Perceived problems are so many gleaners; areas are severely disturbed and lesser catch where smaller clams are gathered due to its scarcity. Reforestation and size limits were the suggested measures to solve scarcity.
Abstract R/0079 - Assessment of the External and Photic Parts of the Caves in Camotes Islands, Central Philippines

1TANDUYAN N. Serapion, 1ANDRIANO T. Berenice, 1GORGONIO L. Heizel Faith., 1TANDUYAN N. Serapion, 1GORGONIO L. Hazel Faith, and 1TANDUYAN N. Serapion.

1Cebu Technological University
Introduction: In line with the Philippine Cave Conservation Act of 2004 and with the progress of tourism industry, caves were considered as one of the tourist destinations, hence, the study of the caves of Camotes Islands was conducted.
Aim: To find out the physical features of the caves including its inside and outside floral and faunal components
Materials and Methods: This study focuses only the photic part of the cave using field study technique and interview guide to gather the data from the inhabitants living near the 7 caves surveyed namely: Timobo Cave, San Francisco, Cebu; Tangub Cave of Poro; Bukilat, Dorenea, Lilang Daku and Suton Caves of Tudela and Guiwanon Cave of Pilar, Cebu.
Results: Caves of Camotes Islands have an area from 1,500 to 15,000 m2 with water depth from 1m to 15 m. Dorenea and Suton Caves have no body of water inside. Mouth sizes ranged from 0.13 -15 meters. The largest mouth opening is Tangub Cave of Pagsa, Poro, Cebu which is 15 meters and the narrowest is Dorenea Cave . Stalactite heights range from 4 inches to 7 inches which are found in Timobo Cave and Dorenea Cave. Stalagmite heights ranged from 5 inches to 7.5 ft. Floral components are ferns, moss and water lilies distributed in the caves except in Guiwanon and Suton Caves. Faunal components are usually birds (balinsasayaw and bats )found only in Bukilat and Tangub Caves); shrimps, crabs and fishes. Salinity ranges from 6 ppt - 22 ppt. and pH ranges from 6.79 to 7.48.
Conclusion: External features of the caves ranges from rocky and grassy areas with trees like mango, coconut and gemelina growing together with shrubs and bananas. Economically, Bukilat, Timobo and Tangub Caves serves as tourist destination where vendors usually sell products. Ecologically, Tangub and Suton Caves are resting places of bats and birds.
Abstract R/0073 - Analysis and Modelling of Clouds Attenuation Effect on Satellite Signals in a Tropical Location Southwest Nigeria

1ADEWUSI O. MUSTAPHA, 1OMETAN O. OLUWAFUNMILAYO, 2AKINWUMI A. SAYO, 2OMOTOSHO V. TEMIDAYO, 2AKINYEMI L. MARVEL, and 2AIZEBEOKHAI A. PHILIPS.

1LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY, PHYSICS DEPARTMENT
2COVENANT UNIVERSITY, PHYSICS DEPARTMENT
Introduction: Earlier research work established that the continually required increases in transmission frequency for operational efficiency by satellite service providers, is phenomenally accompanied by higher electromagnetic signals attenuation, and that satellite communication unavailability in most tropical region as southwest Nigeria is above the allowed 1% outage percentage.
Aim: To obtain a cloud attenuation model for determining effective transmissions margin in tropical area such as Ota (6.7oN, 3.23oE)
Materials and Methods: This research work began with the collection of required data for the Ota station, foremost is the spectrum analyser measurements of the beacons total attenuation at elevation angle 59.9o to Astra 2(E-G) satellites located at 28.2oE, the station weather parameters including clouds parameters. These were followed by performance evaluation of eight existing cloud models with respect to the station climatic characteristics, through the cloud cover and radiosonde data analysis. Then the station spectrum analyser data for 2014 - 2017 were analysed to obtain cloud attenuation contributions from the total attenuation been measured per minute daily. Outputs of these were used to obtain the station cumulative distribution for each of the existing cloud models and the 2014 – 2017 integrated data.
Results: The results at the station beacons frequency of 12.245 GHz show wide gap of 2.59 dB between the maximum cloud attenuation of the Ota spectrum analyzer integrated data cumulative distribution to that predicted by ITU-R model – which is its closest, while next in closeness is the Liebe model, followed by Slobin model. Hence a new model was development for the tropical Ota througha general cloud attenuation algorithm and simulation program written to run its simulations cycles.
Conclusion: The new model predicted 4.0 dB margin, revealing that the predictions for cloud attenuation by the earlier models largely under estimate margin for the tropical sub region
Abstract R/0083 - Fake News Identification in Times of National Crisis: A Controlled Systematic Review

1SANYAOLU M. Seyi, and 1ENIKUOMEHIN A. Oluwatoyin.

1Lagos State University, Computer Science Department
Introduction: News rendering has become a major part of societal services and this has been made easy by the continued adoption of social media platforms whereby users usually rely on the findings on posts rather than the publications on conventional main stream media. Consequently, Social media and blogs have become some of the most required services on the internet with the intention to get local or international news. On Twitter, the platform considered in this study, retweeting is a common feature for information dissemination. Most users do not verify the content they spread making way for easy dissemination of fake news to people within a very short time.
Aim: This study aims at carrying out a controlled systematic review of reported findings of fake news propagation on social media platforms with emphasis on Twitter. The study will enable us determine the key models that are efficient in identifying fake news.
Materials and Methods: A total of 382 articles were retrieved from google Scholar and were carefully examined but only 125 of these articles proved to be very useful and relevant to the aim of this research.
Results: Results obtained show that the Convolutional Neural Network is the most frequently used algorithm for fake news identification for location-based studies as it appeared in 75% of the evaluated articles. The precision ranges between 0.654 to 0.785 suggests that the study can provide further insight into the use of the required and most appropriate model.
Conclusion: Convolutional Neural Network provides a better insight into the modelling and identification of fake news.
Abstract R/0082 - SUITABILITY OF THE DUBOIS AND PRADE’S GRADUAL ELEMENT APPROACH FOR MINIMIZING THE EFFECT OF IMPRECISE QUERY IN AN INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SCHEME: OVERVIEW

1OLADEYI R. Temitope, and 2ENIKUOMEHIN A. Oluwatoyin.

1Department of Computer Science,Lagos State University.
2Department of Computer Science, Lagos State University
Introduction: Information Retrieval (IR) schemes involve the need for users to formulate their information need via a query. Many times, due to ambiguity in human languages and representation, these queries have been largely imprecise thereby leading to the retrieval of many irrelevant information. Several mathematical approaches have been used to handle imprecision and incompleteness in queries however the results are still not satisfying to researchers. The Dubois and Prade’s version of the Gradual Element Approach is considered as an alternative to earlier mathematical IR models.
Aim: The aim is to present an overview of the several approaches we use in understanding the gradual element approach in information retrieval scheme
Materials and Methods: We systematically searched for relevant papers in some bibliographic databases and a total of 406 articles were retrieved for papers published between 2004 and 2018. Peer reviewing was done on the abstracts and full text. Data were extracted by one person and checked by another. Qualitative summary used as Meta analyses was impossible.
Results: Results showed that 68% of the total number of papers reviewed are concentrated on two journals that are in top 5 journals in the IR domain. About 59% percent of the papers carried out systematic reviews on the research without having it as keyword in the topics. Our research showed that 60% of the reviewed articles reported successful use of the Dubois and Prade’s approach as a mathematical alternative in IR schemes.
Conclusion: Dubois and Prade’s gradual element approach should be further explored.
Abstract R/0085 - A Localized Search Engine for Student’s Project Reports

1AKERELE C. Olubunmi, 1RAJI Y. Hanat, and 1AIYENIKO . Olukayode.

1LASU
Introduction: Introduction: Students mostly find it difficult to have access to previous final year projects in their various departments. These works are mostly scattered on the school or departmental library shelves, lecturers’ offices which makes consultation and continuity of research at this level more difficulty. Students are left with what they can only access online (Google). Based on this problems stated, we proposed a web based localized search engine that makes accessibility of past project easier.
Aim: Aim: The aim of the study is to develop a Localized Search Engine that index past final year projects done in various departments of the institution for easy accessibility and consultation.
Materials and Methods: Material and Method: Existing related systems were reviewed. Sample past student’s project reports were collected from departments and indexed accordingly. Also, a user friendly interface was designed for easy retrieval.
Results: A survey was conducted among a number of students in LASU, results show that greater number of them use only online materials (google) for their projects without consultation on the previous project's reports done in their various departments. This makes continuity in research at this level difficult. The proposed web based localized search engine system for student’s project reports has been tested and validated and the feedbacks were positive. With the help of a simple search, student can have access to past projects, who supervised who, what and when.
Conclusion: The proposed system will assist students greatly in defining their research problems and embrace continuity in research. Also, it will enhance collaboration among various departments of the institution.
Abstract R/0087 - Effect of full halo geomagnetic storm on the African low latitude sector: Adis Ababa, Ethiopia as a case study

1OBIEGBUNA C. Dominic, 1IGWE A. Emmanuel, and 1ORJI P. Prince.

1University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Introduction: The ionosphere is crucial to life on earth, especially in the area of communication and transportation (navigational system). In other to improve on these, there is need for continuous improvement in ionospheric studies and knowledge.
Aim: In this study, we looked at the effect of geomagnetic storm on the African low latitude sector.
Materials and Methods: The study used the total electron content (TEC) data obtained from the global positioning system (GPS) to examine the level of response of African low latitude ionosphere to a full halo geomagnetic storm of June 23rd 2015. This study was carried out using a dual frequency ground based GNSS observations at low latitude (ADIS: 9.02 oN, 38.44 oE) ionospheric station in Ethiopia. The vertical TEC (VTEC) was extracted from RINEX formatted GPS-TEC data using the GOPI Software developed by Seemala Gopi. The applied GNSS-TEC analysis program uses ephemeris data and differential code biases (DCBs) for estimating slant TEC (STEC) prior to its conversion to VTEC.
Results: The disturbed VTEC showed positive response to the geomagnetic storm on the geomagnetic storm day. The disturbed VTEC was higher than the solar quiet (Sq) variation by 5.59 TECU at 07:00UT (10:00 LT), 4.82 TECU at 13:00 UT (16:00 LT) and 5.61 TECU at 23:00 UT (02:00 LT), these differences accounted for about 13.54%, 10.50%, and 51.92% variations respectively.
Conclusion: From the result, the disturbed VTEC showed positive response on the geomagnetic storm day and an overall negative response to the event duration (geomagnetic storm of 23rd June 2015).
Abstract R/0088 - Characterization of Africa air atmosphere and quality over southern and northern hemispheres

1ORJI P. Orji, 1CHUKWUMA M. Anoruo, and 1OBINNA O. Osim.

1University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Introduction: Carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone emission controls are currently receiving less attention mostly in Africa. The idea of characterizing African air atmosphere and quality trend is very crucial. This idea will help to validate seasonal to regional (S2R) peak periods. West et al. (2006) proposed that abating tropospheric ozone concentration slows greenhouse warming. Diallo et al. (2017) estimated the zonal monthly mean of on global scale of upper troposphere and stratosphere using backward lagrangian trajectories. The result show that zonal mean distribution of above 5km is driven by large scale transport processes.
Aim: An investigation of Africa air atmosphere and quality is an essential strategy of reinforcing its environmental impact. This idea is very crucial towards validating potential to improve the air quality by regulating carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone emission.
Materials and Methods: In this study, we mapped Africa carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone concentration, maintaining southern (Namibia, Zimbabwe) and northern (Morocco, Libya) hemispheres from 2013-2016 using seasonal index analysis. The analysis method gives a new and significant insight over validating the current trend and were obtained by dividing the yearly mean for each monthly period. We estimated the standard error and significance level of both parameters with geopotential height. Additionally, we correlated geopotential height to investigate the seasonal dispersion efficiency of seasons with peak (positive) frequently concentration and dispersal of the parameters.
Results: The results from the lower and upper limit confidence intervals at 0.95 and 0.99 index show that concentration of carbon and ozone varies with year, seasons and latitudes.
Conclusion: Geopotential height has negative correlation with southern hemisphere and positive correlation with the north on both parameters.
Abstract R/0098 - Antioxidant Potential of Green-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles using Aqueous Extract of Justicia carnea

1ADEYEMO G. Adesegun, 1IGBALAYE O. Jimoh, 1JISU A. Sunday, 1OLAJUWON O. Mistura, 1SALAUDEEN O. Ibrahim, 1AJALA B. Ahmad, 1ABDULAZEEZ . Juwayriyyah, 1OMISORE O. Mustapha, 1ABDULKAREEM O. Teslim, and 1ABDULAHI D. Modinat.

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo
Introduction: Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles has become a promising synthetic strategy in nanotechnology, gaining increasing popularity due to its eco-friendly nature and cost-effectiveness.
Aim: To synthesize silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Justicia carnea and to test the antioxidant activity.
Materials and Methods: Silver nanoparticles was synthesized by adding different concentrations of aqueous extract into separate tubes containing 10mL of 0.001M silver nitrate solution. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Characterization of the silver nanoparticles was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antioxidant activity invitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, ascorbic acid and Butylated Hydroxyl Toluene (BHT) was used as control in this study.
Results: UV-Vis spectra and visual observation of the reaction mixture showed colour changes to grayish-brown and brownish yellow with maximum absorption peaks at 450nm. The FTIR analysis revealed the presence of functional groups such as amines, carboxylic groups, phenols, conjugated cyclic alkenes on the surface of the synthesized nanoparticles, which is similar to those observed in the plant extract. The synthesized nanoparticles have good antioxidant potential by scavenging DPPH and also a good ferric reducing antioxidant power as compared with the standards.
Conclusion: Aqueous extract of Justicia carnea was able to reduce mono silver ion to silver nanoparticle, which demonstrated great antioxidant activities.
Abstract R/0102 - The Impact of Organic Carbon Sources on Growth and Bio-oil accumulation by Freshwater Green Microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus LC172266 cultivated under Mixotrophic culture condition.

1CHIJIOKE N. Eze, 2JAMES C. Ogbonna, 3AOYAGI . Hideki, and 4OGBONNA O. Innocent.

1Science Laboratory Technology Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
2Microbiology Department, University of Nigeria, Nsukka
3Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba japan.
4Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria.
Introduction: Energy crisis and environmental protection have attracted global attention to microalgal biofuels.
Aim: The present study investigated the impact of organic carbon sources on growth and bio-oil accumulation by an oleaginous microalga Desmodesmus subspicatus LC172266 under mixotrophic culture condition.
Materials and Methods: BG-11 medium supplemented with either glucose or glycerol as organic carbon source was used as growth medium.
Results: Glucose and glycerol supported higher growth rate and lipid productivity than sucrose, fructose, mannitol and acetate. Each of the organic carbon source tested had significantly (P < 0.05) higher growth and lipid productivity than the control (without organic carbon source). Combined optimal glucose and glycerol concentration (5.0 g/L glycerol + 10.0 g/L glucose) stimulated significantly (P < 0.05) higher lipid and biomass contents than the values obtained with either optimum glucose or glycerol. The lipid productivity of 0.14875 ± 0.002 g/L/day was about 25% and 66% more than the values obtained by only 10.0 g/L glucose and 5.0 g/L glycerol respectively. The combined 5.0 g/L glycerol batch with 0.5 g/L glucose daily fed-batch impacted negatively on the cell growth and lipid productivity when compared to combined optimal glucose and glycerol batch concentration. However, when scaled up in a novel 4-L volume photobioreactor, the combined optimal glucose and glycerol batch concentrations elicited lower cell mass and lipid productivity than either the single optimum glucose or glycerol concentration after seven days of cultivation.
Conclusion: The result suggests that the combination of optima concentrations of glucose and glycerol could have synergistic effect in terms of lipid productivity by D. subspicatus. However, the synergism may not be directly replicated at higher culture volume.
Abstract R/0107 - INSECT DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE IN FOREST AREAS OF LAGOS STATE

1ALAFIA O. Azeezat, 1AJELARA O. Kafayat, 1DENLOYE B. Abiodun, and 1OYEMA H. Emeka.

11.Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo. Lagos.
Introduction: Little is known about the population dynamics and management potentials of many forest insect populations and the possibility of manipulating forest vegetation practices to sustain forest insect population in Nigeria
Aim: A field survey was conducted in Lagos State, Nigeria, to assess the diversity and abundance of insect species in three selected tropical forest areas namely Ikotun, Iba and Ijanikin.
Materials and Methods: Sampling was done fortnightly with the use of sweep net, hand collection technique, beating sheet and pitfall trap, over a period of three months. Insects collected were preserved in 70% alcohol except butterflies and moths which were kept with dry preservation. Representative samples were identified with V1.0.8 Picture Insect mobile application and confirmation was done using type specimens.
Results: A total of 182 insects belonging to seven orders, 38 species and 18 families were collected. The most dominant order was Coleoptera with relative abundance of 66.48%, and the least was Hemiptera with 0.59%. The most dominant insect species are Pantala flavescens (Fabricus, 1798) and Sympetrum pallipes (Hage, 1874), having relative abundance of (8.24%) each, and closely followed by Palpopleura lucia (Drury,1773) with relative abundance of (7.69%), Ceriagrion glabrum (Burmeister, 1839) (7.14%), and Aphylla augustifolia (Garrison, 19860) (6.04%), less rare species were sampled with relative abundance of 5%. The highest species diversity was observed in the order Odonata (H’=1.094), while the least was Hemiptera (H’=0), which also boast of the highest species concentration of (D=1.00). Although Iba site recorded the lowest number of individuals, it has the highest value of species diversity (H’=1.244).
Conclusion: This study therefore brings to the fore, the diversity and abundance of insects in the sampled forest locations of Lagos State, Nigeria.
Abstract R/0109 - Mosquito Distribution and Abundance in Selected Areas of Badagry Area of Lagos

1AJELARA O. Kafayat, 1ALAFIA O. Azeezat, and 1DENLOYE A. Abiodun.

1Lagos State University
Introduction: Mosquitoes are regarded as the deadliest animals on Earth, they are vectors of diseases and plays a major role in malaria transmission a number one killer disease.
Aim: The study sampled the mosquito species found in four selected areas of Badagry Area of Lagos, Nigeria during wet and dry season.
Materials and Methods: Adult mosquitoes were collected from different households in Iworo, Ajido, Gbetromey and Aghakhameh communities of Badagry area of Lagos State using quick knockdown insecticide. The collected mosquitoes were identified morphologically using keys from Gillies and Coetzee 1985.
Results: A total of 964 mosquitoes were collected throughout the period of study.383 female Anopheles were collected during the wet season, and 261 were collected during dry season; while males collected during wet and dry season are 45 and 42 respectively. Culex female mosquitoes collected during wet and dry seasons were 162 and 38 respectively. The males are 24 and 9 respectively
Conclusion: The study showed that Anopheles species were more abundant in Badagry Area compared to Culex mosquitoes species and be the reason for high rate of malaria incidents in the area. The result can be used to plan malaria control programs in Badagry and Lagos State in general.
Abstract R/0110 - Indonesian government policies in sustainable use of marine and fisheries resources in the Indonesian exclusive economic zone

1YANTI B. Bayu Vita Indah, and 1KURNIAWAN T. Tikkyrino.

1Research Centre of Social Economy of Marine and Fisheries
Introduction: as an archipelagic country with a water area of ​​more than 70%, Indonesia is known as a coastal state which has sovereignty and sovereign rights in the utilization of these waters for the welfare of its citizens. the development of policies carried out by the government is adjusted to the interests of the country itself by taking into account the provisions of international law which require elements of sustainability from the existence of the resources used
Aim: The purpose of this study is to provide material for policy recommendations to the government in order to produce better policies in the sustainable use of marine and fisheries resources.
Materials and Methods: The study method used is a normative legal research method and also literature based on applicable regulatory materials and existing research results related to this study.
Results: As a result of the studies conducted to date there are developments in the discourse of granting utilization rights to foreign investors in capture fisheries businesses for fisheries areas in Indonesia's exclusive economic zone and the high seas.
Conclusion: This development must be taken into account with a note that the government as a policy maker must pay attention to, where the government should realize that even without foreign investors, the ability of domestic capture fisheries entrepreneurs in Indonesia is also sufficient to exploit the use to prevent excessive resource exploitation.
Abstract R/0113 - Scenario of Wood-fuel Energy in Fish Preservation by Artisanal Fishers in Lagos State, Nigeria: Nexus Approach Towards Energy-climate Smart Fish Preservation

1AKINTOLA S. Shehu, 2OLUWA O. K, 1ALADEYEMO A. Y, and 1RIDEWU N. A.

1Fisheries Department, Lagos State University, Lagos Nigeria
2Botany Department, Lagos State University, Lagos Nigeria
Introduction: There have been policies aimed at transforming the small-scale fish processing industry into modern ones, this study thus provided an update on the scenarios fuel woods used in fish processing in the Lagos State vis-à-vis the technology being adopted.
Aim: The paper seeks to provide information on the information on the practice fish smoking methods adopted in Lagos State and specifically the use of coconut husk
Materials and Methods: Information on the monger and type of technology used in fish smoking was carried out by the open-ended questionnaire. Information on the composition of the various fuel woods includes the use of proximate analyses (Association of Analytical Chemists, 1984) while the volatiles and calorific values were determined by the ASTM (1989, 1998) method.
Results: Approximately 60 percent of the mongers claimed to smoke 3800-4200 kg/annum of arrays of fish using 8.03 Kg/week of fuelwoods or 0.5 t/cap/year per capita fuel wood. The commonly used fuelwood are coconut coir (fibre) (Cocos nucifera), cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale), Lagos Mahogany (Khaya ivorensis), Black afara (Terminalia ivorensis), Cedar kokoti, (Entandrophragma candollei) and hardwood (Gossweilerodendron balsamiferum). It is remarkable to note that except for both Cocos nucifera and Anacardium occidentale all other fuelwoods are classified as threatened species according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, IUCN 2013
Conclusion: The coir remains a waste which attracts zero cost and better fuel qualities compared to the other fuelwoods commonly fish smoking in the study area. It is recommended that promotion of the growing of the plants by fishers will be a good practice in the diversification of the income of the fishers as well a means of poverty reduction aside guaranty of food security.
Abstract R/0114 - Amelioration of fructose-induced metabolic syndrome by pigeon pea-supplemented diet in rats

1KAZEEM I. Mutiu, 1ADELEKE A. Esther, 1ADEGBUYI J. Oluwatobiloba, 1COLE O. Olivia, and 1OLUWAFEMI O. Jeremiah.

1Department of Biochemistry, Lagos State University, PMB 0001, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of several metabolic disorders characterized by obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension. The high global prevalence of MetS of 34.7% necessitate concerted effort at mitigating the scourge. Consumption of meals rich in legumes (e.g pigeon pea) is inversely correlated with incidence of metabolic syndrome.
Aim: This study is aimed at evaluating the possible beneficial effect of supplementation of diet with pigeon pea in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.
Materials and Methods: Twenty (20) female Wistar rats were randomized into four groups of five animals each. Group 1 (Control) received normal diet and water, group 2 (MetS) received normal diet and 20% fructose water, group 3 (PP) received pigeon pea-supplemented diet and normal water, while group 4 (MetS+PP) received pigeon pea-supplemented diet and 20% fructose water. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and lipid profile, antioxidant parameters and carbohydrate metabolic pathways enzymes were assessed.
Results: At the end of 8 weeks, the concentration of serum glucose, LDL-cholesterol, albumin, urea, creatinine and hepatic malondialdehyde were significantly increased (p ˂ 0.05) in fructose-fed rats compared to the control. Supplementation of diet with pigeon pea significantly reduced (p ˂ 0.05) the serum glucose, LDL-cholesterol, urea, creatinine as well as hepatic malondialdehyde levels compared to the fructose-fed rats. Pigeon pea-supplemented diet also improved the hepatic catalase and serum HDL-cholesterol concentration of the fructose-fed rats only.
Conclusion: Supplementation of diet with pigeon pea can ameliorate the hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia associated with metabolic syndrome. However, it has no effect on glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. Further study is required on to determine the influence of this diet on the expression relevant proteins implicated in metabolic syndrome.
Abstract R/0115 - Effect of row spacing and seeding rates to obtain optimal canola yield.

1KANMI-OBEMBE . Olakorede, 1SHIRTLIFFE . Steve, and 1JOHNSON . Eric.

1Department of Plant Sciences, University of Saskatchewan.
Introduction: Canola is one of the most profitable oilseed crop in Canada. Most canola producers are concerned about obtaining optimal canola yield because canola seed is expensive, and the plant populations achieved on farm are often lower than optimum.
Aim: The objective of this study is to determine the effect of row spacing and seeding rates to achieve optimum canola yield and to utilize Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imagery to measure green leaf area/ground cover in determining the effects of row spacing and seeding rate on yield.
Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted in four site-year. It was strip-plot randomized complete block design arranged in factorial manner. Treatments included seeding rates of 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 140 seeds/m2 and row spacing of 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 cm in Kernen, SK and 19, 38, 57 and 76 cm in Carman, MB, due to different seeder in both location. Images were collected once a week from the seeding until harvest. The images were stitched and analyzed to obtain green leaf area.
Results: Lower yield was obtained at wider row spacing at 76cm and 90 cm in Carman and Kernen respectively. Increasing seeding rate with lower row spacing increased obtained canola yield in all site years. Increasing seeding rates also influenced yield components such as biomass, number of pods, number of branches, start of flowering and end of flowering. Maximum yield was obtained at 19 cm and 30 cm row spacing in Carman and Kernen respectively. Images were collected once a week from the seeding until harvest. The green pixel count obtained from the images correlated strongly with canola yield.
Conclusion: Wider row spacing and low seeding rates will reduce canola yield as a result of reduced plant population, increased self-thinning and reduced resource capture.
Abstract R/0117 - Ecotourism Planning and Cross-Sector Partnerships: Prospects and challenges for Small-Scale Fisheries viability in Ría Lagartos, Mexico

MENDOZA DE LA LUZ . Valeria

University of Waterloo
Introduction: The unique biodiversity of the Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve, located in Yucatan Mexico, is characterized by abundant mangroves and very diverse fauna. The reserve was established in 2004 and it is considered of intrinsic and economic value in Mexico and in the world. Moreover, Ría Lagarto’s ecosystems provide a variety of resources viable for different activities, such as fishing, salt extraction, agriculture, livestock, and tourism. Fishing, in particular, has historically been a key element in the development of Yucatan’s coastal zones and Ría’s neighboring towns, including El Cuyo, San Felipe, Rio Lagartos, and Las Coloradas. With the influence of the introduction of Cancun to the international tourism market, the practice of ecotourism in Ría has positioned itself as one of the main economic income alternatives for local families. The flamingo nesting season in the salt pink lakes of Las Coloradas attracts tourist’s attention every year. Ecotourism promotes local and regional development, by integrating the various activities that are carried out in a geographical space, keeping these in harmony with the care of the environment. However, it can generate economic, social, political, and environmental pressures if it is not well planned.
Aim: Examine and understand the characterization of Ría’s small-scale fisheries and the emerging tourism sector and its interaction, critically analyze the key contributions and adverse impacts resulting from tourism practices in the area, and explore strategies for successful community-based sustainable tourism planning.
Materials and Methods: I am following a qualitative approach and doing secondary data analysis. I am using the Community-embedded application of I-ADApT (V2V) and the FARNET framework for Fisheries Local Action Groups (FLAGs).
Results: In process
Conclusion: In process. Overall analyze how the fishing sector fits in the tourism activity and what market niches are available between both activities that can integrate more fisher’s participation and help as a viable option of diversification.
Abstract R/0118 - Mangrove-Dependent Small-Scale Fisheries (SSF) Communities in the Sundarbans – Vulnerable yet Viable

PATTANAIK A. Aishwarya

University of Waterloo, V2V Partnership
Introduction: Sundarbans is the largest remaining mangrove belt in the Asian Subcontinent. Mangroves of Sundarbans shared between India and Bangladesh, are complex ecosystems that are on the verge of obliteration. Along with diverse flora and fauna, they support the livelihoods and culture of millions SSF communities. 7.5 million people reside in the Sundarbans and around 40,000 households are dependent solely on small-scale fisheries.
Aim: The purpose of this research is to assess the vulnerability of SSF communities and examine ways in which they can achieve viability. The objectives of this study are to – (a) describe the drivers of change impacting mangroves as well as the communities in Sundarbans, (b) analyze the vulnerabilities experienced by the SSF communities in Sundarbans, and (c) to examine the response strategies of the communities to achieve viability.
Materials and Methods: The study embraces a qualitative approach. An in-depth systematic literature review and case studies will be used to meet the objectives.
Results: There is a lack of understanding of the interaction and interconnection between mangroves and SSF on a vulnerability and viability perspective. Mangrove cover have been reduced by 35% in the recent years by the combined action of natural and anthropogenic drivers of change such as – cyclones and extensive shrimp aquaculture. 70% of cyclones in Bay of Bengal pass through Sundarbans affecting mangroves, fishponds, and fishing gear while conversion of wetlands and agricultural lands by non-fishers, into fragmented shrimp culture ponds create fishing pressure on the Sundarbans and competition between them and the SSF communities. These factors result in multidimensional vulnerabilities like loss of livelihoods, health issues and migration.
Conclusion: Awareness of sustainable ways of fishing and regulatory systems is needed for management of the forests and its resources. Coping and adaptive responses as long-term strategies is crucial for ecosystem sustainability and community stabilization.
Abstract R/0150 - REVIEW ARTICLE: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ATTRIBUTES OF EXCOECARIA AGALLOCHA, CERIOPS DECANDRA AND AEGICERAS CORNICULATUM

1GIWA AJENIYA . Abdullatif olufemi, and 2PRINCE EMEKA . Ndimele.

1Chemistry Department Lagos stae university
2Department of fisheries and aquatic biology Lagos state university
Introduction: Mangroves are salt tolerant forest ecosystems found mainly in the tropical and subtropical intertidal regions of the world largely confined to the region between 30° North and South of the equator. Today mangroves are found in about 30 countries in tropical subtropical regions covering an area of about 99,300 km2. Asia has the largest extent of mangroves (5.8 million hectares) accounting for some 38 % of the global mangrove area.
Aim: To assess the comparative pharmacological attributes of three malaysian mangrove species excoecaria agallocha, ceriops decandra and aegiceras coniculatum.
Materials and Methods: This paper presents a comparative analysis of pharmacological attributes of excoecaria agallocha, ceriops decandra and aegiceras coniculatum. Mangrove has long been source of cure to various ailments either as single specie or in combination with other species or plants.
Results: The paper has implications for further research
Conclusion: However, the use of mangrove is limitless, with attention on medicinal values of three species of mangrove, excoecaria agallocha, ceriops decandra and aegiceras coniculatum with its relevance from ancient to the present use in combatting the menace of drug resistant parasite and other treat to human health. The paper has implications for further research. Keyword- Comparative Analysis, Mangroves, Pharmacological Attributes
Abstract R/0149 - CYTOTOXICITY PROPERTIES OF EXECOECARIA AGALLOCHA L SPECIE FROM SETIU WETLAND TERENGGANU MALAYSIA

1GIWA AJENIYA . Abdullatif olufemi, and 2PRINCE EMEKA . Ndimele,.

1Chemistry Department Lagos stae university
2Department of fisheries and aquatic biology Lagos state university
Introduction: Natural product has long been source of remedies to ameliorate various health related issues and diseases which have shown resistance towards synthetic drugs and as such threat to human cell line (HepG2). Cytotoxic properties of Excoecaria agallocha L mangrove species was studied against HepG2 cell line.
Aim: To ascertain the cytotoxicity properties of excoecaria agallocha L from setiu wetand Terengganu malasia
Materials and Methods: Investigation was carried out using 3 fractions and 2 crude extract of both butanol and methanol. Preparation of samples was done using soxhlet apparatus and the In vitro activity was carried out on the extract using promega one solution cell proliferation assay (cell titer 96 ) 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt against the chosen cell line.
Results: The highest growth within the fractions was fraction C with 184% at concentration 25µg/ml, and Log IC50 value of 1.689µg/ml, IC50 value of 48,86 µg/ml while 161% was the lowest in fraction C. This was followed by fraction B with 168% at concentration 100µg/mL as the highest growth% Log IC50 2.606 µg/mL,IC50 value of 403.5 µg/ml and 125 % at concentration 3.125 µg/ml been lowest growth percent in fraction B which was the least growth % among fractions. The highest in fraction A was 167% at concentrations 6.25µg/ml, Log IC50 1.827 µg/ml, IC50 67.21 µg/ml and 12.5 µg/ml while the lowest was 148% at concentration 3.125µg/ml. Methanol crude extract displayed highest cell growth of 166% at concentration 12.5µg/ml and Log IC50 of 1.077 µg/ml,IC50 11.03 µg/ml while it lowest was 155% at concentration 6.25µg/ml. Butanol crude extract displayed 177% as the highest cell growth at concentration 100 µg/ml and Log IC50 value of 0.05601 µg/ml, IC50 1.138 µg/ml while the lowest concentration was 3.125 µg/ml at percentage 150.
Conclusion: These values substantiate the non-toxic nature of Excoecaria agallocha L extract, a potential candidate for hepatoprotectivity.
Abstract R/0125 - Staphylococcus sciuristrain XB1a diesel degrading bacterium isolated from Igando dumpsite in Lagos State Nigeria.

1FASHOLA O. MUIBAT, 1ASHADE O. Ahmeed, 1OPERE O. Bolanle, 1DAWODU B. Taiwo, 1SEMAKO D. Sejoro, and 1OBAYORI O. Oluwafemi.

1LAGOS STATE UNIVERSITY
Introduction: Diesel oil is one of the major hydrocarbon pollutants in our natural environment due to accidental spills, storage tanks and leaking pipelines and pipelines vandalization.
Aim: To isolate from Igando-dumpsite polluted soil, diesel degrading bacteria and to ascertain their potentials to degrade other hydrocarbon contaminants.
Materials and Methods: Bacteria capable of degrading diesel were isolated from the polluted soil via continuous enrichment method on mineral salt medium using 1% diesel serving as sole carbon and energy source. The isolate was identified using cultural, morphological, biochemical characteristics and complemented with analytical profile index. Substrate specificity and salt tolerance were determined and antibiotic sensitivity was determined by multi disc (Abitek, UK).using standard procedures. Growth was monitored via optical density. Residual oil was determined by Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame ionization detector (GC-FID).
Results: The isolate is yellowish, Gram positive cocci, catalase positive, oxidase and coagulase negative. The isolate was able to ferment glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose and xylose but tested negative to sodium pyruvate, melibiose, methyl α-D- glucose pyroside. The isolate was able to degrade diesel, kerosene, crude oil but poor growth on anthracene, phenanthrene and pyrene. The degradation kinetic on diesel showed that XB1 had a biphasic growth, having doubling time of 11.925 d-1 and 17.825 d-1 between day 0-12 and 12-30 respectively. The percentage hydrocarbon fractions degraded through chromatographic analysis showed 75.79% and 100% degradation for nonane, 34.8% and 77.99% for tetracosane while 59.96% and 81.86% for hexacosane at day 15 and 30 respectively. A pH decrease was observed in the culture media. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern revealed that XB1 was susceptible to ofloxacin, perfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin but resistant to streptomycin, gentamycin, augmentin and amoxacillin.
Conclusion: Staphylococcus scuiri strain XB1 was isolated from Igando dumpsite soil, this isolate could be used for bioaugmentation of hydrocarbon polluted environmental compartments.
Abstract R/0127 - Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Bacterial isolates and Occurrence of Extended Spectrum Beta – lactam Resistant in Sputum of Patients in Selected Public Hospitals in Lagos State

1GRILLO J. Adebayo, and 1FAGBOLA G. Abimbola.

1Department of Microbiology, Lagos State University
Introduction: Antibiotic resistance is the biggest threat to effective treatment of microbial infections.
Aim: To determine the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria isolated from sputum of patients presenting cases of lower respiratory tract infections in Alimosho and Ikorodu General hospitals and Lagos State University Teaching Hospital LASUTH and the occurrence of extended spectrum β-lactamase Klebsiella sp.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 bacterial isolates were obtained from 85samples using standard cultural method and the antibiotic sensitivity test was conducted using the Kirby Bauer method and the double disk test was used for detection of extended spectrum β-lactamase positive organism.
Results: Klebsiella pneumoniae had the highest percentage occurrence of 40, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20), Staphylococcus aureus (16). The least % occurrence was 2 for Streptococcus and Aerobacter species respectively. Resistance in Klebsiella sp. was 45.8% to ciprofloxacin and 20.8% to ofloxacin. It was 40 and 25% to amoxicillin in Ps. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively. Seventy-five percent of the streptococci were resistant to streptomycin, gentamicin, and ceftriaxone. Resistance to β-lactam antibiotics was found in 41.7 and 50% of the Klebsiella and and Ps. aeruginosa respectively. Only one strain of K. pneumoniae was extended spectrum β-lactamase positive.
Conclusion: The presence of these resistant organisms may limit antibiotic options in the treatment of lower respiratory infections.
Abstract R/0129 - POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF SOME VEGETABLES, FRUITS AND ORNAMENTAL CROPS IN THE SOUTH-WESTERN PART OF NIGERIA

1AJIPE O. JOHN, and 2ALEBIOSU O. SHADRAK.

1Yaba college of Technology.
2University of Ibadan.
Introduction: The studied plants include, Moringa oleifera Lam., Corchorus olitorius L., Carica papaya L., Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw., Platycodon grandifloras (Jacq.) A. DC, Ixora chinensis Lam. and Cascabela thevetia (L.) Lippold, which were collected from Lagos and Ibadan in the south western Nigeria. Some of these plants were edible, while others were used as ornaments for beautification. Keywords: Pollen, Ornamentals, Morphology, Taxonomy, Palynology.
Aim: The aim of this research is to produce another means for identification particularly when other means of identification are not available.
Materials and Methods: The buds and flowers of seven different vegetables, fruits and ornamental crops were collected and preserved using glacial acetic acid. Their pollen morphological features were determined with the use of light microscope.
Results: The photomicrographs of the pollen were taken and various features of the pollen such as the shape (which include, prolate, spheroidal and oblate), polar axis (ranged from 7.00μm to 56.00μm), equatorial diameter (ranged from 3.80μm to 49.00μm), length of colpus (ranged from 0.4μm to 23.00μm), width of colpus (ranged from 0.90μm to 17.20μm), length and width of the pores (ranged from 0.70μm to 2.30μm), and the exine thickness (ranged from 0.20μm to 1.90μm) were studied and recorded.
Conclusion: The research revealed that the dissimilarities in the pollen morphological structures justify their classification into different families. The study concludes that pollen characters are significant in taxonomical studies.
Abstract R/0130 - AN INVESTIGATION FOR THE USE OF WASTES FROM FOUR PLANT MATERIALS: Ananas comosus L., Musa paradisiaca L., Saccharum offinarum L. AND Zea mays L. IN PAPER PRODUCTION

1OLUWA K. OMOTESO, and 1AWONIYI M. Abiodun.

1Lasu
Introduction: The global demand for wood fiber is increasing with the increasing world population and new applications for wood fiber. Therefore, to supplement the limited wood fiber resources, non-wood fibers from wastes of some plant materials have been introduced as alternatives in pulp and paper-based industries.
Aim: This study aims to use wastes from four plant materials: Ananas comosus L., Musa paradisaca L., Saccharum offinarum L., and Zea mays L. as alternative raw material in pulp in paper-making industry to promote the concept of waste to wealth and recyclable material
Materials and Methods: Physical properties of the wastes and mechanical properties of the handmade paper produced from the waste materials were performed in line with the procedures of TAPPI
Results: Results from the physical properties showed that stalk of M. paradisiaca L. have the highest fiber length of 2.83mm and husk of Zea mays have the least fiber length of 1.34mm. Runkel ratio of the four plant materials: Ananas comosus L., Musa paradisaca L., Saccharum offinarum L., and Zea mays L. are 0.75, 0.82, 0.95 and 0.98 respectively (RK < 1) making them suitable for pulping and papermaking. Results of the mechanical properties of the bleached and unbleached paper sheet revealed that the bleaching agent have mild effects on the properties investigated in the study.
Conclusion: The overall results showed that the four wastes from plant materials used in this study have a promising potential as fiber alternatives for pulp and paper production which will be useful for various application thereby reducing depletion of forest and environmental pollution caused by the conventionally woody plants.
Abstract R/0133 - Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contents in Water, Sediment, and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Lagos Lagoon, Lagos, Nigeria

1OSHO-ABDULGAFAR F. Nimah, and 2WHENU O. Olusegun.

1Presenting Author
2Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Science, Lagos State University. KM 15, Badagry Expressway, Ojo Lagos, Nigeria.
Introduction: The Lagos Lagoon makes a key contribution to scientific research and fisheries that are of economic importance such as the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).
Aim: This study was done to check the level of pollution caused by the unregulated discharge of wastes into the lagoon.
Materials and Methods: Samples of sediments, water, and tissue of O. niloticus were collected monthly between May - February 2018 from Makoko, Majidun, and Bayeku segments of the lagoon. Selected physicochemical parameters and five heavy metals, Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), and Mercury (Hg) were investigated using American Public Health Association (APHA) procedures.
Results: The highest mean concentration of Turbidity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Total Dissolved Solids across the sampling stations were 5 NTU, 4881.8±1801.04mg/l, and 804±90.146mg/l respectively. Makoko recorded the lowest level of pH (6.0) and highest Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of 15 mg/l. The highest level of As (0.012±0.003mg/kg), Cr (0.009±0.000mg/kg), and Pb (0.042±0.007mg/kg) in O. niloticus were recorded from Makoko samples while Bayeku has the highest level of Cd (0.011±0.004). Across the three sampling stations, the mean concentration of heavy metals in sediments ranged from As (0.009±0.004mg/kg – 0.011±0.004mg/kg), Cd (0.007±0.003mg/kg - 0.020±0.012mg/kg), Cr (0.007±0.003mg/kg - 0.013±0.007mg/kg), and Pb (0.012±0.002mg/kg – 0.075±0.030mg/kg), and Mercury was generally beyond detectable levels.
Conclusion: This study indicated that concentrations of heavy metals are increasing, most especially in Makoko and Majidun, and fish from these stations may cautiously fit for consumption while the water could be used for domestic purposes. However, it is advised to purify this water before domestic use or agricultural-related purposes. It is also recommended that domestic and industrial users treat their wastes before discharge into the lagoon, and governments should postulate pollution control and discharge regulations.
Abstract R/0135 - A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF FISHERS’ KNOWLEDGE ON FOUR SNAPPER SPECIES (FAMILY LUTJANIDAE) IN SOME PARTS OF LAGOS STATE, NIGERIA.

1FAKOYA A. Kafayat, 2OLOKO . Ayodele, and 3ADELEKE L. Mosunmola.

1Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University,Ojo
2International Studies in Aquatic Tropical Ecology, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany
3Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure
Introduction: In Nigeria, few marine fish species of economic importance including Snappers (Family Lutjanidae) have been studied to understand their biology or ecology. Snappers are excellent food fish and form important components of the coastal and estuarine small-scale fisheries (SSF) in Nigeria for which data are poor. However, Fishers’ Knowledge (FK) presents an affordable, experience-based, rapid appraisal method complementary to Scientific Knowledge (SK) particularly ideal for generating data for SSF in most developing countries.
Aim: Therefore, this research was conducted to provide baseline information collected by FK on some taxonomical features, stomach contents, reproduction, exploitation and marketing of four snapper species : African red snapper (L. agennes), African brown snapper (L. dentatus), Golden African snapper (L. fulgens) and the Gorean snapper (L. goreensis).
Materials and Methods: A mixed method approach was adopted in this study. Primary data was collected through (i) SK and (ii) interviews using semi-structured questionnaires with local fishermen and fish mongers at selected landing sites and local fish markets in Lagos State. Results generated from FK were compared with SK and secondary data.
Results: Key findings from the FK compared favourably with SK and secondary data. The four species of Lutjanidae are carnivorous, nocturnal feeders, demersal dwellers with strong site fidelity, spawn on rocky substrates and were suggested to be overexploited.
Conclusion: This study, therefore, recommends the effective utilization of a holistic approach involving the fishermen, fishmongers and fisheries scientists towards the sustainability of Lutjanidae and other fishes as a strategic way of generating baseline information for the management of fishery resources and to aid formulation of evidence-based policies.
Abstract R/0041 - Lagos Coastline Spatio-Temporal Assessment for Coastal Fisheries Management.

1KAPPO A. Ayorinde, 2FAKOYA A. Kafayat Fakoya, 2AKINTOLA L. Shehu, and 3OLOWOYEYE J. Busayo.

1Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University, Ojo; Cooperative Information Network, Ife.
2Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University.
3Department of GIS and Remote Sensing, Federal University of Akure.
Introduction: Spatio-temporal assessment of shoreline changes provides valuable insight about the past, current and future coastline position. This information is very important for managing natural coastal resources and coastal fishing communities as well controlling coastal flooding. The changes in the coastline have been attributed to both anthropogenic activities and climate change. Recently coastal flooding has led to the displacement of some coastal fishing communities in the southwest, Nigeria.
Aim: This study intends to provide information on the morphological changes along the Lagos coastline for coastal fisheries management.
Materials and Methods: An integrated geospatial and statistical methodological approach was adopted using temporal Landsat satellite imageries of 2000 to 2015 to extract and analyse the Lagos coastline. The rate of change statistics was calculated using the End Point Rate and Linear Regression methods.
Results: The study revealed that erosion was the most dominant trend along the Badagry coastline while acretion was the most dominant for Lagos Island and Lekki coastline. High erosion with rate as high as 6.1 m/yr ± 1m was observed within the Badagry coastline in contrast to high accretion rate of 7.4m/yr ± 1m.
Conclusion: This study provided baseline information on the rate of coastal erosion and accretion along the Lagos coastline. This information will be useful for relevant stakeholders in managing coastal fishing communities and coastal environment along Lagos coastline.
Abstract R/0043 - Development of Objective Ranking System for Tertiary Institutions in Developing Nations

1ATANBIYI B. Gabriel, 1OLABANJO A. Olushola, and 1ARIBISALA S. Benjamin.

1Lagos State University, Ojo, Department of Computer Science
Introduction: A University is the highest citadel of learning which has the primary goals of awarding degrees and conducting research. University ranking helps universities, funder and stakeholders to identify areas needing improvement.
Aim: To design and develop an objective ranking system that will capture the peculiarities of the universities in developing nations.
Materials and Methods: Ten existing ranking systems were considered in this study and seventeen criteria were identified from them and used to propose a new ranking system. Some of the criteria used are number of full professors in the university, h-index of the university and the total number of students in the university. Weights were objectively assigned for each criterion based on their degree of importance and the number of existing ranking systems using the criteria that were used in developing the proposed system. The system was implemented using Nigerian Universities and web crawling techniques were developed and employed to extract the values of the criteria for each of the universities used as a case study. A total score based on the weight of criteria was calculated for each university and used for ranking. System implementation was carried out using PHP and Python.
Results: The best five universities from the proposed system were University of Ibadan, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Lagos, University of Benin and University of Ilorin. We compared our result with the latest result from Webometric and Times New Higher (2020), 7 of the best universities from WRWU are within the best 10 in our system while 4 of the best universities from QS are also within the best 6 in our system.
Conclusion: The proposed ranking system will give a better result in ranking of universities in developing nation than the existing systems because it contain more objective and useful criteria that can captured the peculiarities of universities in developing nation.
Abstract R/0047 - THE ROLE OF CRYPTOLOGY IN COMBERTING CYBERCRIME

MACCIDO . Ahmad

IAENG
Introduction: The increasing use of social media resulted in the diversification of strategies and practices of cybercrime which become has become a global phenomenon, cybercrime dipping a global economy, and promotes online illicit markets obscene material such as drugs, regulated commodities, and stolen goods. For several years, federal and private organizations are at risk for attacks. According to (James Ball, 2015) the U.S Cybersecurity report indicates the danger of online intrusion from malicious parties and those associated with criminal groups, according to the report, encryption was the best defense against cybercrime. The report also pinpointed out that, the cybercriminal’s attack depends on the nature of encryption technology adopted for the targeted data. This study represents a comprehensive review of Cybercrime as a global phenomenon and how cryptology could be applied in preventing as well as help in tracking the culprit. The two branches of cryptology are very paramount in achieving data protection and criminal tracking which are cryptography and cryptanalysis respectively.
Aim: The study intended to pinpoint how cryptological tools would be used to fight cybercrime by providing data security as well as facilitate in providing evidence for the convicting of the culprit
Materials and Methods: Conceptual review
Results: The paper highlight some of the cryptology techniques used to secure data and how much could be improved to suit the nature of the devices we are using particularly in our local community (Nigeria) and the means of data transmission. Also, Cryptanalysis is a tool that has to do with studying the cryptosystem and how it could be broken in order to have a good forensic investigation for provision of all possible evidence to prosecute the culprit.
Conclusion: At the end of the review, the paper suggests the adoption of some strategic measures by security agencies in order to accomplish a lasting solution to this global phenomenon.
Abstract R/0051 - On the solution of Euler-Bernoulli Beam Subjected to concentrated Moving Loads using Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM)

1MUSTAPHA R. Adewale, and 1SALAU M. Ayobami.

1Lagos State University
Introduction: we investigate the series solution of Euler-Bernoulli Beam with a concentrated load using HPM.
Aim: To check how a moving load on a beam responds to deflection.
Materials and Methods: We use Maple to dissolve the associated Partial Differential Equations and the use of a Semi-Analytical Method called Homotopy Perturbation Method.
Results: we saw that there is a correlation between the variation of mass of beam and deflection which turns out to suit a real life situation(Model).
Conclusion: As the mass of the beam increases the deflection increases and as the mass of the beam decreases the deflection also increases.
Abstract R/0057 - MASW and 2D-ERI Techniques As A Tool For Landslide Potential Evaluation

1ANUKWU C. Geraldine, 2KHALIL E. Amin, and 3NAWAWI M. Nordin.

1Department of Geosciences, University of Lagos
2Geology Department, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt
3Geophysics Unit, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
Introduction: Landslides are a common occurrence in Malaysia, with the attendant effect of the destruction of infrastructure, properties and even the loss of lives. Factors that affect the occurrence of landslides include site hydrogeology, the ability of the soil to withstand shearing and slide, as well as the slope angle. Geophysical techniques can provide means by which these factors can be identified, quantified, and understood to mitigate and/or prevent its occurrence. The study area hosts a residential estate, which is still undergoing development. The presence of a slope close to the buildings is of concern, prompting the need to understand the subsurface materials to mitigate against possible landslides.
Aim: This study aims to evaluate the potential of landslide occurrence at the study area - Kulim district, southeast of the State of Kedah, Malaysia.
Materials and Methods: Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) and 2-D Electrical Imaging (ERI) measurements were conducted in the study area, consisting of an MASW and two 2-D ERI lines. The results were processed and analyzed to obtain the S-wave velocity and inverted resistivity section of the subsurface.
Results: The S-wave velocity (Vs) and the inverted resistivity sections indicate three distinct subsurface materials. Materials having Vs less than 180 m/s characterizes the top 5 m. At a depth of 2 - 8 m, the resistivity of the subsurface materials ranges from 1 - 200 ohm-m. Generally, the results suggest that the top 8 m is composed of materials with low stiffness (soft soil), probably saturated and characterized by clay lenses. Given these characteristics, the potential for the occurrence of a landslide is inherent. Hence, there is a need to implement remediation activities in the study area.
Conclusion: The use of both techniques provided comprehensive information about the stiffness, hydrogeology and subsurface lithology of the study area.
Abstract R/0058 - THE ROLE OF ICT IN RIOT CONTROL

MACCIDO . Ahmad

IAENG
Introduction: Maintaining peace and order during a protest has always been a challenge to any government of whatsoever level. There is no doubt that protesting is absolutely right but when the act of protesters is getting out of hand leading to breaking law and order it is where it terms as a riot. A riot control has to do with measures taking by security agencies to disperse, arrest people involves in the act. Information and Communication Technology as a widely defined term that has to do with the use of computer and other communication devices with the addition of some utilities (programs) in order to achieve information acquisition, dissemination, processing, storage and retrieval, this could absolutely be useful in order to tackle a riot challenge when judicially applied.
Aim: This paper aims to examine a wide range of use of technology in the area of riot control and crime prevention in general. The paper also describes recent ICT technological innovations used in most of the developed countries.
Materials and Methods: Conceptual review
Results: The paper highlight some of the ICT tools that could be used to prevent protester from moving with the metal object also moving cameras and other IoT technology will be used to total coverage of the event this facilitates enough to trace culprit whenever a crime is carried out. just take a typical example of just recent #ENDSARS protest in this contrary which turns to riot/violence and looting. with the help of ICT gadgets, the culprit of such a crime could easily be trace and prosecute.
Conclusion: At the end of the review of recent ICT technological innovations used in most of the developed countries like the USA in managing riot. the paper suggests the adoption of IoT technology by security agencies in order to have control of the riot
Abstract R/0059 - ASSESSMENT OF VALUE CHAIN OF THE SMALL-SCALE FISHERIES: A REVIEW

JOSEPH O. Olufemi

Akintola ,Sheu Latunji and Lawson Olugbenga Emmanuel
Introduction: The significance of small-scale fisheries in employment generation in developing nations cannot be over emphasized. These fisheries provide vital local nutritious food and a safety net for many poor households in coastal communities in African countries including Nigeria. However, small-scale fisheries are often poorly documented, poorly regulated and many of the complex management issues remain largely unresolved. Aim: The study aimed to review the contribution of actors pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest actors) in the value chain of small scale fisheries in some African nations, in a bid to have a clue of what the actors in the value chain of small scale Fisheries of Lagos State, may contribute.
Aim: : The study aimed to review the contribution of actors pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest actors) in the value chain of small scale fisheries in some African nations, in a bid to have a clue of what the actors in the value chain of small scale Fisheries of Lagos State, may contribute.
Materials and Methods: Secondary data and literatures were compiled for this study.
Results: The study identified the main stakeholders, marketing channels for inputs and outputs, challenges and opportunities to production, and recommendations for policy and research that are aimed at enhancing sustainable small scale fisheries. The review also revealed impacts of governance in the control of the activities of the actors, contribution of actors in value chain of fish production, climatic factors affecting fish production as well as the economic factors affecting the effectiveness and maximization of fish production.
Conclusion: The activities of actors (pre-harvest, harvest and post harvest actors) in the value chain of small scale artisanal fisheries had great potential to impacts the economy and social growth of any nation.
Abstract R/0060 - A Dynamic Epidemiological Model for the Analysis and Control of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic

WUSU S. Ashiribo

Department of Mathematics, Lagos State University, Lagos
Introduction: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic that was first identified in the Chinese city of Wuhan has now become a pandemic. As efforts are now in place to get a cure for this killer infection, there is need to find the best approach to reduce the spread of the disease in Nigeria. In its effort to reduce the spread of the disease, Nigeria embarked on the enforcement of Social Distancing among the susceptible population and Quarantine among the infected population.
Aim: In this work, a new dynamic epidemiology model to analyse the (COVID--9) pandemic Nigeria is proposed.
Materials and Methods: Using data provided by Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) and World Health Organization (WHO), we estimate the parameters of the model and make predictions on the turning points and possible vanishing time of the virus in Nigeria.
Results: The proposed model is an improvement on the standard SEIR model. The new model takes into consideration the effectiveness of the social distancing and quarantine control measures.
Conclusion: A sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to validate the long term forecast of the model.
Abstract R/0139 - NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF SARGASSUM SPP

1ADU B. Oluwatosin, 1SAIBU M. Gbemisola, 1OGUNRIOLA O. Olabisi, 1ADETUNJI O. Nasibat, 1DELPHONSO V. Temitope, and 1ASHAOLU O. Mathew.

1Department of Biochemistry , Lagos State University.
Introduction: Seaweeds in human and animal nutrition have been for years in Asian countries but they are underutilized in Nigeria. Being plants of unique structure and biochemical composition, seaweeds could be exploited for their multifunctional properties.
Aim: The present study aims at elucidating the nutritional composition and physiochemical properties of Sargassum spp (brown seaweed) along the West coast of Lagos, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Fresh seaweeds were collected from suntan beach, Badagry, Lagos State. It was dried, ground, sieved and assessed for their proximate composition, mineral composition and functional properties i.e swelling capacity (SWC), water holding capacity (WHC), and oil holding capacity (OHC).
Results: Sargassum spp contain 69.54±0.08% of carbohydrate, 8.08±0.04% of protein, 6.79±0.046% of crude fat, 3.60±0.07% of moisture and 6.48±0.04% of ash and 5.51±0.03% of crude fibre. It was high in sodium and magnesium (228.38ppm and 115.02ppm respectively) and low in iron and zinc (14.5±0.577ppm and 5.13±0.326ppm respectively), calcium was found to be 96.40 ±0.511ppm. Functional properties such as swelling capacity (SWC), water holding capacity (WHC), and oil holding capacity (OHC) ranged from 1.0 to 1.22 ml/g DW, 7.25 to 8.53 g/g DW and 0.90 to 0.95 g oil/g DW, respectively.
Conclusion: The results indicates that Sargassum spp could be used as a functional ingredient in food and pharmaceutical industry.
Abstract R/0140 - ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF SEAWEED (Sargassum spp) FROM THE COAST OF BADAGRY

1ADU B. Oluwatosin, 1SAIBU M. Gbemisola, 1OGUNRIOLA O. Olabisi, 1ADETUNJI O. Nasibat, and 1DAUDA A. Soliu.

1Department of Biochemistry, Lagos State University .
Introduction: In recent times, a great deal of interest has been developed by consumers towards natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in food products due to their various beneficial effects. Sargassum spp along Lagos coast is perceived as a nuisance by the host communities, but it could be an important bio-resource.
Aim: The present study aims to estimate the in- vitro antioxidant activity of Sargassum spp present in the coast of Badagry, Lagos, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Fresh seaweeds were collected from suntan beach, Badagry, Lagos State. It was dried, ground, sieved and various extracts (water, ethanol, methanol and alginate) were obtained from ground sargassum and estimated for antioxidant measurements, i.e., Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, Ferrous ion chelating effect, reducing power effect, and total phenolic compounds.
Results: Water extract and Alginate showed a significantly higher Total antioxidant capacity and DPPH scavenging activity (p<0.05) at 1mg/ml compared to other extracts, while they showed no significant difference in Ferrous ion chelating activity compared with the standards (BHT and Ascorbic acid). Ethanol extract showed a significantly higher reducing potential (FRAP) value at all concentrations (p<0.05) compared to other extracts. Ethanol extract also had significantly higher Total phenolic content (p<0.05) compared to other extracts.
Conclusion: The data showed that Sargassum spp from Badagry coastline has good prospect as a source of natural antioxidants.
Abstract R/0141 - Influenza virus pandemics and emerging subtypes: An overview.

ANJORIN A. Abdul-Azeez

Department of Microbiology (Virology research), Lagos State University, P.M.B. 0001 Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
Introduction: Out of over 200 viruses from more than 1,400 infectious pathogens causing human diseases globally, influenza remains one of the most prevalent. It has caused serious pandemics including the Spanish flu of 1918 that infected about 500 million/1.5 billion (one third) of the world's population with total deaths of 50-100 million people.
Aim: This review therefore examines and summarises influenza virus past pandemics and emerging subtypes till date.
Materials and Methods: Search words/terms including influenza, influenza virus, influenza virus pandemics, and influenza virus emerging subtypes were used to harvest series of published literatures from common public repositories- PUBMED, Google scholar, Lancet article collections, Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), OIE- World Organisation for Animal Health, and World Health Organization (WHO) databases. A final total of 121 articles/literature collections were carefully studied and reviewed one after the other, bearing in mind quality publications that focused on the aim of this write-up.
Results: Summary of the nature of influenza virus revealed the new proteins that were recently found to be coded by the viral genome including: PB1-N40, PA-X, PA-N155, PA-N182, H17, H18, N10, N11, and M42 while its major pandemics of 1889, 1918, 1957, 1968, 1977, and 2009, and emerging subtypes were examined notably: influenza A H6N1, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N8.
Conclusion: It is anticipated that a better understanding of the dynamics of the past pandemics and circulating subtypes will go a long way in preventing and reducing the global burden associated with influenza virus pandemics especially in developing countries where influenza activities is highly unknown.
Abstract R/0143 - Memorization and Reduction of Risk of Developing Dementia: A Study into Brain Hemispheric Development in Healthy individuals

1RAHMAN A. Mukaila, and 1ARIBISALA S. Benjamin.

1Lagos State University (LASU), Ojo Lagos
Introduction: Alzheimer disease, which is one of the of causes of dementia, often occur due to the degenerative brain disease that is triggered by complex brain changes following cell damage as one aged. Resource constraints in Africa cause financial difficulties in dementia treatment and management, so lessening the risk of developing dementia is crucial to reducing its burden. Means of managing or even reducing the risk of dementia will go a long way in reducing emotional and financial stress on family members and loved ones of affected adults.
Aim: The work aimed to investigate the association between scripture memorization and reduction of risk of developing dementia using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) techniques.
Materials and Methods: Participants comprised 52 healthy adults of ages between 35 and 80 years old with no neurological or psychological disorders. Of these, 16 have completely memorized (CMQ) the Quran, 22 have partially memorized (PMQ) parts of Quran while 14, the control group (CON), have not committed the Quran into their memory. The volumes of both left and right hemisphere of each participant were extracted and calculated using standard algorithms. The hemisphere volumes of those who memorized entire Quran and those who memorized only a small portion were compared with the control group using one-way ANOVA. All statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software, except where noted otherwise, and p values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: The left and right grey hemisphere matter volumes of CMQ was bigger than that of PMQ and CON subjects (265154.81 ± 34371.35, 238150.91 ± 25604.16 and 212052.71 ± 32037.53, p<0.05). Similar thing was observed for the white matters.
Conclusion: This imply that those who keep their brains active through memorization (e.g. of the Quran) have potential to be less susceptible to neurological conditions like Alzheimer as they aged.
Abstract R/0122 - ASPECTS OF THE TROPHIC ECOLOGY OF JUVENILE GOREAN SNAPPER (LUTJANUS GOREENSIS) (VALENCIENNES, 1830) FROM FIVE COWRIE CREEK, LAGOS.

1FAKOYA A. Kafayat, and 2SABA O. AbdulWakil.

1Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University
2School of Agriculture, Lagos State University, Epe
Introduction: Snappers constitute important fishery resource in the tropics and sub-tropics where they are highly esteemed as food fish. In West Africa, there is sparse information on the biology, including aspects of food habits of the species which is a serious limitation to their domestication and culture.
Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study is to present information on aspects of the feeding ecology in juvenile gorean snapper (L. goreensis) from Five Cowrie Creek, Lagos.
Materials and Methods: The Index of Relative Importance, Modified Costello Graphical Method and Shannon Wiener’s Diversity Index were calculated to characterize diet and feeding strategy. Linear regressions were performed to assess growth patterns of five morphological characters related to feeding and the relationships between major prey categories and the total lengths of juvenile L. goreensis..
Results: Of the 301 specimens sampled, 152 (50.5%) had filled stomachs. Diet was broad consisting of fourteen prey items sorted into six major categories. Major prey items were crustaceans dominated by penaeid shrimps and crabs. Specimens were in a good state of well - being as indicated by their monthly Relative Condition Factors which ranged from 2.19 - 2.45 with a mean value (>2). There were no significant differences in the Relative Condition Factor and Food Overlap (Schoener’s Overlap Indices >0.6) among the 3 size – classes. However, a significant difference was observed only in Diet Breadth (5.45>t) between the small – size and large- size classes. Dietary - morphological and prey- size relationships in juvenile L. goreensis were also directly related to a carnivorous diet.
Conclusion: Evidence from this study has shown that juvenile L. goreensis from Five Cowrie Creek can be categorized as an opportunistic carnivore with a tendency to feed most on epibenthic crustaceans.
Abstract R/0124 - Molecular Prevalence of Influenza virus in Tuberculosis and HIV Patients attending Chest Clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria

1ANJORIN A. Abdul-Azeez, 1ADEGBESAN A. Ghazal, 1DADA M. Ayomide, 1OJIKUTU T. Mary, 1KILANI O. Ilerioluwa, 2ANYANWU . Roosevelt, and 3,2 OMILABU A. Sunday.

1Department of Microbiology (Virology Research), Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
2Centre for Human and Zoonotic Virology (CHAZVY), Central Research Laboratory, College of Medicine, University of Lagos (CMUL)/ Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria
3Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Medicine (CMUL), University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Lagos, Nigeria
Introduction: A total of about 1.5 million people died from tuberculosis (TB) including 251,000 living with HIV in 2018 with a large proportion from sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, the burden of influenza virus in tuberculosis and HIV patients is unknown.
Aim: This study investigated influenza virus in tuberculosis and HIV patients attending chest clinics and determined its burden based on gender, age and hospital-location in Lagos State.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross‐sectional study between September 2019 and January 2020. A total of 400 samples were collected from three General Hospitals and University Health centre. The population consists of age range 7 to >65 years, and 67.2% (269/400) females of which 11% (30/269) were pregnant. Influenza RNA was extracted from nasopharyngeal specimen using QIAamp mini-kit followed by RT-PCR and gel electrophoresis. TB and HIV tests were performed as part of the clinical management.
Results: Out of 366 willing patients screened for HIV, 26.8% (n=90) were positive, 2.5% (10/400) had tuberculosis and 1.8% (7/400) were asthmatic. Furthermore, we detected 2.3% (9/400) molecular prevalence of influenza-A virus, out of which 66.7% (6/9) were females while age 45-54years accounted for the highest 44.4% (4/9) burden. Interestingly, 66.7% (6/9) had HIV, 44.4% (4/9) had TB while 33.3% (3/9) were co-infected with TB and HIV. Ikorodu General Hospital recorded (highest) 55.6% (5/9) prevalence of influenza based on location. Overall, females accounted for more burden of 66.7% (6/9), 80% (8/10), and 84.4% (76/90) influenza, tuberculosis and HIV respectively.
Conclusion: This study reported the first molecular detection of influenza-A virus in tuberculosis and HIV patients in Nigeria. The low incidence may be attributed to small sample population, which may trigger health alarm if extrapolated into the national population, underscoring the need for a national surveillance to estimate actual burden of influenza in HIV and TB patients for adequate planning and control in Nigeria.
Abstract R/0147 - EFFECTS OF 2, 3-DICHLOROVINYL DIMETHYL PHOSPHATE (DDVP) ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF CLARIAS GARIEPINUS UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS

1WHENU O. Oluwasegun, 1OLARINMOYE M. Oluwatosin, and 1OLADIPUPO O. Ibrahim.

1Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University
Introduction: Pesticides have pervaded the markets, and have become common items in farms, homes, and food storage houses, hence are indiscriminately employed, mostly by rural and urban farmers and sometimes members of the society. Thus, they are potential environmental contaminants, and pose threat to the wellbeing of man and animals especially aquatic organisms.
Aim: To evaluate the effect of sublethal concentrations of DDVP on biochemical parameters of Clarias gariepinus under laboratory conditions.
Materials and Methods: The toxic effects of 2,2- dimethyl dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP), on test specimens (Clarias gariepinus) of average weight 112.6 ± 30.2 g and length 26.6 ± 3.0 mm were examined. The experimental design consisted of a set of three concentrations [0.5, 0.75, 1.0 ppm], and a control set up (0 ppm) of DDVP; 20 Litres of water is filled into the each Tank. Each tank was distinctively labeled [control “C”, least concentration “G1”, Mid Concentration “G2”, and the highest concentration “G3”] and stocked with 4 test organisms, making a total of 20-fish. The sub-lethal concentration was determined to be 1ppm and below. The parameters taken into consideration include behavioral, alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Blood sample was collected intravenously from fish in each tank for 4days. Blood Serum was obtained by centrifugation. The concentration of ALT and AST was obtained using 721(D) Spectrophotometer and Randox kits.
Results: The result observed shows erratic movement of fish, blood dyscrasia, excessive secretion of mucus and hyper-excitability. The average concentration of ALT and AST of the control was 67.73 and 28.12 respectively. A significant increase of an average of 93.09 and 339.77 in the level of ALT and AST respectively was observed.
Conclusion: Lethal and sub-lethal exposures of C.gariepinus to varying environmentally relevant concentrations of DDVP, showed that C. gariepinus can be used as early detection system to assess DDVP pollution effects on aquatic ecosystems.
Abstract R/0146 - An Assessment of the Impacts of Covid-19 on Fisheries and Aquaculture in Nigeria

1AREOLA O. Foluke, and 2OSANYINLUSI i. Oladele.

1Department of Fisheries, Lagos State University (LASU), Ojo, Lagos
2Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
Introduction: The fisheries and aquaculture sub-sectors are important contributors to the growth of the Nigerian economy. However, the sub-sectors were not spared of the recent pandemic as the unexpected occurrence of Covid-19 met the operators and other stakeholders in the fisheries and aquaculture unprepared.
Aim: This paper assesses the effect of the pandemic in the fisheries and aquaculture subsectors, during and after the period of official lockdown in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: This involves the use of primary data, focus group discussion, and the use of questionnaires. The time considered for this study would cover the period during and after the official lockdown in Nigeria
Results: The outcomes of the impacts of Covid-19 on the functionality of the sub-sectors were huge and unimaginable in terms of prices and supply chain disruptions. There were hikes in production input prices, reduction in fish production and output. There was an aftermath fish glut in the market. which led to the loss of income and evolution of innovation in digital marketing.
Conclusion: The paper revealed the lessons learned, the preparedness to mitigate further occurrences and minimize the impacts on the stakeholders and the sub-sectors.
Abstract R/0151 - CYTOTOXICITY PROPERTIES OF EXCOECARIA AGALLOCHA L SPECIE FROM SETIU WETLAND TERENGGANU MALAYSIA

1GIWA AJENIYA . Abdullatif olufemi, and 2PRINCE EMEKA . Ndimele.

1Chemistry Department Lagos stae university
2Department of fisheries and aquatic biology Lagos state university
Introduction: Natural product has long been source of remedies to ameliorate various health related issues and diseases which have shown resistance towards synthetic drugs and as such threat to human cell line (HepG2). Cytotoxic properties of Excoecaria agallocha L mangrove species was studied against HepG2 cell line.
Aim: Assessment of the cytotoxicity properties of excoecaria agallocha L from setiu wetland terengganu malaysia
Materials and Methods: - Investigation was carried out using 3 fractions and 2 crude extract of both butanol and methanol. Preparation of samples was done using soxhlet apparatus and the In vitro activity was carried out on the extract using promega one solution cell proliferation assay (cell titer 96 ) 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt against the chosen cell line.
Results: The highest growth within the fractions was fraction C with 184% at concentration 25µg/ml, and Log IC50 value of 1.689µg/ml, IC50 value of 48,86 µg/ml while 161% was the lowest in fraction C. This was followed by fraction B with 168% at concentration 100µg/mL as the highest growth% Log IC50 2.606 µg/mL,IC50 value of 403.5 µg/ml and 125 % at concentration 3.125 µg/ml been lowest growth percent in fraction B which was the least growth % among fractions. The highest in fraction A was 167% at concentrations 6.25µg/ml, Log IC50 1.827 µg/ml, IC50 67.21 µg/ml and 12.5 µg/ml while the lowest was 148% at concentration 3.125µg/ml. Methanol crude extract displayed highest cell growth of 166% at concentration 12.5µg/ml and Log IC50 of 1.077 µg/ml,IC50 11.03 µg/ml while it lowest was 155% at concentration 6.25µg/ml. Butanol crude extract displayed 177% as the highest cell growth at concentration 100 µg/ml and Log IC50 value of 0.05601 µg/ml, IC50 1.138 µg/ml while the lowest concentration was 3.125 µg/ml at percentage 150.
Conclusion: - These values substantiate the non-toxic nature of Excoecaria agallocha L extract, a potential candidate for hepatoprotectivity.
Abstract R/0026 - Assessment of Heavy Metals and Pesticide Concentration in Some Selected Local (Citrus Sinensis L. and Carica Papaya L.) and Imported (Ananas Comosus L. and Vitis Vinifera L.) Fruits

1ADU A. Ayotunde, 2ADERINOLA J. Oluwatoyin, and 1JOHN B. Bamidele.

1Department of Botany, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
2Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria
Introduction: Fruits are edible plant products that are good for health. Therefore the importance of assessing the precise qualitative and quantitative heavy metal and pesticides contents present in them for adequate nutritional labeling and ensuring that the produce is safe enough for consumption cannot be over emphasized.
Aim: The study was conducted on the fruits- Citrus sinensis, Carica papaya, Ananas comosus and Vitis vinifera to investigate the heavy metal and pesticides contents in them.
Materials and Methods: The heavy metals in these fruits were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) while pesticide concentration were analyzed using GC/MS.
Results: The results revealed that Fe have the highest concentration (0.41±0.12mg/kg) in Citrus sinensis and lowest in Carica papaya (0.25±0.06mg/kg), while Cu was highest in Citrus sinensis (0.22±0.04mg/kg) and lowest in Carica papaya (0.07±0.03mg/kg).Other metals did not have significant level of detection. The Organophosphorus was recorded to have the highest in Citrus sinensis (0.06±0.01) and Ananas comosus (0.02±0.00). The Organochlorines were recorded to be highest in Ananas comosus (0.11±0.03). The results showed that the metals Fe, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg were within the safe permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO) and analyzed fruits were found to be within Maximum residual limits of FAO/WHO.
Conclusion: The present findings indicated that the fruits are contaminated with heavy metal and pesticides, although were safe for consumption.
Abstract R/0031 - THE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY IN NIGERIA: DEVELOPMENT AND STRATEGIES FOR ITS IMPROVEMENT

1HENRY S. OKEKE, and 1PETER O. MBAMALUIKEM.

1THE FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC, ILARO
Introduction: The electricity supply of a nation is of great value as it affects the growth of the nation in every aspect and as such cannot be overemphasized. Nigeria's electric power industry is currently undergoing an unprecedented restructuring and one of the most stimulating and possibly profitable recent developments is the unbundling of the power sector.
Aim: The aim of the paper is to examine the development of electricity supply in Nigeria from the first generating power plant installed at Marina, Lagos State up to the present stage of the unbundling of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria. Also, explains certain challenges being faced by the sector and thus, outline strategies for improvement of the electric power supply system.
Materials and Methods: Numerous consultations were carried out from previous academic researches, books, and journals that relate to the issues discussed in this paper. From these consultations, conclusions were therefore made.
Results: From the discussion of the result, different measures were suggested for the improvement of the existing form of generation of power which ranges from Construction of more Combined Cycle Gas Turbine, encouraging local content in the execution of new projects, improving the business climate for foreign investors amongst others. Discussions were also made on the various renewable sources that can be harnessed for an improved energy system in the country.
Conclusion: From the energy outlook of Nigeria, it is evident that Nigeria is blessed with abundant resources of fossil fuels as well as renewable energy resources. The major challenge is the insufficient exploitation of energy sources in Nigeria. As a result, there is an urgent need to encourage the evolvement of an energy mix that will emphasize the conservation of petroleum resources in such a manner that will enable their continued exportation to other countries .
Abstract R/0028 - Heat Transfer Analysis for Squeezing flow of Nano fluids between two parallel disks

1MUSTAPHA A. Rilwan, and 1SALAU M. Ayobami.

1Lagos state university
Introduction: This paper investigates the heat analysis and squeezing flow of Nano fluids between two parallel disk in the presence of magnetic field.
Aim: To analyse a comparative study between finite difference method (FDM) and Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM).
Materials and Methods: Dissolving the governing equation of the model above via similarity transformation method
Results: The above methods used are in agreement with the result of existing literatures
Conclusion: HPM is a good tool in dissolving non linear differential equations.
Abstract R/error - error

1OLANIYAN S. Adegoke, 1AKANBI A. Moses, 2RAJI-LAWAL Y. Hanat, 2ADESINA O. Ademola, 2AKERELE C. Olubunmi, 2AKERELE O. Olukayode, 3NWORAH N. Eucharia, 3OMEJE O. Kingsley, 3EZE O. Sabinus, and 4ANTIA E. Ukpono.

1Lagos State University, Nigeria
2Lagos State university, Faculty of Science, Computer science Department, Ojo, Lagos
3UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA
4Akwa Ibom State University
Introduction: error
Aim: error
Materials and Methods: error
Results: error
Conclusion: error
Abstract R/0035 - MAPPING OF AQUIFEROUS ZONES USING GEOPHYSICAL METHODS AND CONTAMINANT FLOW DIRECTION -A case study of dumpsite at Cassidy, Okokomaiko, LASU-Badagry Expressway, Lagos State, Nigeria

1ADEGBOLA B. Rafiu, 1ABIDOYE E. Olanike, and 1ADARANIJO B. Ibrahim.

1Lagos State University, Ojo Lagos
Introduction: Cassidy area, of Okokomaiko, Ojo, Lagos State, is a rapidly developing area with attendant growing population arising from the presence of University, financial institutions and popularly known Alaba market. Unfortunately, water supply by the water corporation is not readily available. The inhabitants only rely on the surface water and groundwater extracted from hand dug wells and boreholes.
Aim: The study is to map the aquiferous zone and establish the groundwater flow direction, with a view to averting subsurface contamination emanated from dumpsite within the area.
Materials and Methods: : Twenty five (25) Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger electrode array, four (4) Electrical Resistivity imaging using Wenner Electrode Array were acquired at four different traverses. Manual groundwater flow direction was also conducted.
Results: The identified unconfined aquifer was sand/sandy clay which is overlain by peat/clay soil that is loose and may allow downward migration of the contaminant plumes to deep groundwater. However, the confined aquifer observed to occur approximately at depth 18 m. The electrical resistivity distribution observed decreases upward, south and north. This implies increase in conductivity in such directions and as such indicating the contaminant could be more concentrated near-surface, north and south.
Conclusion: The implication of the results obtained with respect to vulnerability to groundwater pollution is that the southern section of the aquifer is more susceptible to receive transported contaminants from the northern part of the study area. The study suggests the potential borehole should be sited in the north-eastern direction with the aid of geophysical survey.
Abstract R/0137 - Decision Support System for the Prediction of Staff Promotion Using Mutual Information Gain Enhanced Naïve Bayes Model

1OLABANJO A. Olusola, 1ARIBISALA S. Benjamin, and 2OLABANJO E. Olufemi.

1Computer Science Department, Lagos State University
2Department of Statistics, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (FUNAAB)
Introduction: Personnel management is a key factor in an organization’s Human Relations (HR). The need for effective service delivery, enhanced decision-making support system, non-biased staff relations strategy, effective and staff-oriented policy making, adequate business ethics and efficient enterprise resource planning necessitates the need to have in place an effective support mechanism for the HR department in the determination of promotion of the employees in its care. Absence of a Decision Support System can inhibit the effectiveness of staff promotion, thereby making it skewed and biased. This work seeks to address this scientifically using machine learning.
Aim: The aim of this work is to develop an enhanced Naïve Bayes model for the prediction of staff promotion in an organization.
Materials and Methods: We obtained an HR dataset from Kaggle (https://kaggle.com) – an online repository which contains employee’s personal and performance measures such as qualification, gender, channel of recruitment, trainings attended, age, last performance score, targets met, award, marital status and a class indicator of whether they are promotable or not. A Naïve Bayes model was developed for the preprocessed dataset. The dimension of the dataset was also reduced using Mutual Information Gain and its impact was assessed.
Results: The proposed model gave accuracy of 91% for the full feature set and 93% for the reduced dataset. The model is 86.23% sensitive and 79% specific for the full feature but 90.72% and 92.54% for sensitivity and specificity respectively for the reduced feature set. This also gave the AUC score of 88.23%.
Conclusion: This work brings to the awareness of the employees and employers alike the attributes that must be given a higher attention for promotion purpose. Mutual-Information-Gain-enhanced Naïve Bayes model has proven to be a promising model in achieving a significant level of accuracy in predicting if a staff is to be promoted in a given organization or not.